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Toward a Holistic Communication Approach to an Automated Vehicle’s Communication With Pedestrians: Combining Vehicle Kinematics With External Human-Machine Interfaces for Differently Sized Automated Vehicles

Lau, Merle and Jipp, Meike and Oehl, Michael (2022) Toward a Holistic Communication Approach to an Automated Vehicle’s Communication With Pedestrians: Combining Vehicle Kinematics With External Human-Machine Interfaces for Differently Sized Automated Vehicles. Frontiers in Psychology. Frontiers Media S.A.. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2022.882394. ISSN 1664-1078.

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Official URL: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyg.2022.882394/full

Abstract

Future automated vehicles (AVs) of different sizes will share the same space with other road users, e. g., pedestrians. For a safe interaction, successful communication needs to be ensured, in particular, with vulnerable road users, such as pedestrians. Two possible communication means exist for AVs: vehicle kinematics for implicit communication and external human-machine interfaces (eHMIs) for explicit communication. However, the exact interplay is not sufficiently studied yet for pedestrians’ interactions with AVs. Additionally, very few other studies focused on the interplay of vehicle kinematics and eHMI for pedestrians’ interaction with differently sized AVs, although the precise coordination is decisive to support the communication with pedestrians. Therefore, this study focused on how the interplay of vehicle kinematics and eHMI affects pedestrians’ willingness to cross, trust and perceived safety for the interaction with two differently sized AVs (smaller AV vs. larger AV). In this experimental online study (N = 149), the participants interacted with the AVs in a shared space. Both AVs were equipped with a 360◦ LED light-band eHMI attached to the outer vehicle body. Three eHMI statuses (no eHMI, static eHMI, and dynamic eHMI) were displayed. The vehicle kinematics were varied at two levels (non-yielding vs. yielding). Moreover, “non-matching” conditions were included for both AVs in which the dynamic eHMI falsely communicated a yielding intent although the vehicle did not yield. Overall, results showed that pedestrians’ willingness to cross was significantly higher for the smaller AV compared to the larger AV. Regarding the interplay of vehicle kinematics and eHMI, results indicated that a dynamic eHMI increased pedestrians’ perceived safety when the vehicle yielded. When the vehicle did not yield, pedestrians’ perceived safety still increased for the dynamic eHMI compared to the static eHMI and no eHMI. The findings of this study demonstrated possible negative effects of eHMIs when they did not match the vehicle kinematics. Further implications for a holistic communication strategy for differently sized AVs will be discussed.

Item URL in elib:https://elib.dlr.de/187569/
Document Type:Article
Title:Toward a Holistic Communication Approach to an Automated Vehicle’s Communication With Pedestrians: Combining Vehicle Kinematics With External Human-Machine Interfaces for Differently Sized Automated Vehicles
Authors:
AuthorsInstitution or Email of AuthorsAuthor's ORCID iD
Lau, MerleMerle.Lau (at) dlr.dehttps://orcid.org/0000-0003-4852-034X
Jipp, MeikeMeike.Jipp (at) dlr.deUNSPECIFIED
Oehl, MichaelMichael.Oehl (at) dlr.dehttps://orcid.org/0000-0002-0871-2286
Date:2022
Journal or Publication Title:Frontiers in Psychology
Refereed publication:Yes
Open Access:Yes
Gold Open Access:Yes
In SCOPUS:Yes
In ISI Web of Science:Yes
DOI :10.3389/fpsyg.2022.882394
Publisher:Frontiers Media S.A.
ISSN:1664-1078
Status:Published
Keywords:automated vehicles, vehicle size, pedestrians, external human-machine interface (eHMI), vehicle kinematics
HGF - Research field:Aeronautics, Space and Transport
HGF - Program:Transport
HGF - Program Themes:Transport System
DLR - Research area:Transport
DLR - Program:V VS - Verkehrssystem
DLR - Research theme (Project):V - Zukunftsbilder eines automatisierten integrierten Verkehrssystems
Location: Braunschweig
Institutes and Institutions:Institute of Transportation Systems > Information Flow Modelling in Mobility Systems, BS
Institute of Transportation Systems > Cooperative Systems, BS
Institute of Transport Research > Leitungsbereich VF
Deposited By: Lau, Merle
Deposited On:02 Aug 2022 09:03
Last Modified:02 Aug 2022 09:03

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