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Impact of External Human-Machine Interface Communication Strategies of Automated Vehicles on Pedestrians’ Crossing Decisions and Behaviors in an Urban Environment

Wilbrink, Marc and Lau, Merle and Illgner, Johannes and Schieben, Anna Maria and Oehl, Michael (2021) Impact of External Human-Machine Interface Communication Strategies of Automated Vehicles on Pedestrians’ Crossing Decisions and Behaviors in an Urban Environment. Sustainability, 13 (15). Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI). doi: 10.3390/su13158396. ISSN 2071-1050.

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Official URL: https://www.mdpi.com/2071-1050/13/15/8396

Abstract

The development of automated vehicles (AVs) and their integration into traffic are seen by many vehicle manufacturers and stakeholders such as cities or transportation companies as a revolution in mobility. In future urban traffic, it is more likely that AVs will operate not in separated traffic spaces but in so-called mixed traffic environments where different types of traffic participants interact. Therefore, AVs must be able to communicate with other traffic participants, e.g., pedestrians as vulnerable road users (VRUs), to solve ambiguous traffic situations. To achieve well-working communication and thereby safe interaction between AVs and other traffic participants, the latest research discusses external human-machine interfaces (eHMIs) as promising communication tools. Therefore, this study examines the potential positive and negative effects of AVs equipped with static (only displaying the current vehicle automation status (VAS)) and dynamic (communicating an AV’s perception and intention) eHMIs on the interaction with pedestrians by taking subjective and objective measurements into account. In a Virtual Reality (VR) simulator study, 62 participants were instructed to cross a street while interacting with non-automated (without eHMI) and automated vehicles (equipped with static eHMI or dynamic eHMI). The results reveal that a static eHMI had no effect on pedestrians’ crossing decisions and behaviors compared to a non-automated vehicle without any eHMI. However, participants benefit from the additional information of a dynamic eHMI by making earlier decisions to cross the street and higher certainties regarding their decisions when interacting with an AV with a dynamic eHMI compared to an AV with a static eHMI or a non-automated vehicle. Implications for a holistic evaluation of eHMIs as AV communication tools and their safe introduction into traffic are discussed based on the results.

Item URL in elib:https://elib.dlr.de/143342/
Document Type:Article
Additional Information:interACT
Title:Impact of External Human-Machine Interface Communication Strategies of Automated Vehicles on Pedestrians’ Crossing Decisions and Behaviors in an Urban Environment
Authors:
AuthorsInstitution or Email of AuthorsAuthor's ORCID iD
Wilbrink, Marcmarc.wilbrink (at) dlr.dehttps://orcid.org/0000-0002-7550-8613
Lau, MerleMerle.Lau (at) dlr.dehttps://orcid.org/0000-0003-4852-034X
Illgner, JohannesUniversität MünsterUNSPECIFIED
Schieben, Anna MariaAnna.Schieben (at) dlr.dehttps://orcid.org/0000-0003-3608-2004
Oehl, MichaelMichael.Oehl (at) dlr.dehttps://orcid.org/0000-0002-0871-2286
Date:2021
Journal or Publication Title:Sustainability
Refereed publication:Yes
Open Access:Yes
Gold Open Access:Yes
In SCOPUS:Yes
In ISI Web of Science:Yes
Volume:13
DOI :10.3390/su13158396
Publisher:Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI)
ISSN:2071-1050
Status:Published
Keywords:Psychology, HMI, MMI, Human-Machine Interface, Human-Machine Interaction, eHMI, VRU, Pedestrian, Automated Driving, Automation, AV, CAV,
HGF - Research field:Aeronautics, Space and Transport
HGF - Program:Transport
HGF - Program Themes:Transport System
DLR - Research area:Transport
DLR - Program:V VS - Verkehrssystem
DLR - Research theme (Project):V - Energie und Verkehr
Location: Braunschweig
Institutes and Institutions:Institute of Transportation Systems > Cooperative Systems, BS
Institute of Transportation Systems > Information Flow Modelling in Mobility Systems, BS
Deposited By: Oehl, Dr. Michael
Deposited On:30 Jul 2021 13:45
Last Modified:30 Jul 2021 13:45

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