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Titanium and Titanium Nitride Coatings produced by Gas Flow Sputtering

Tang, Stanley and Schulz, Uwe (2010) Titanium and Titanium Nitride Coatings produced by Gas Flow Sputtering. 2nd International Workshop on Plasma and Electron Beam Technologies for Protective Coatings, 16.-17. Juni 2010, Kiew.

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Gas Flow Sputtering (GFS) belongs to the group of Physical Vapour Deposition techniques (PVD) like Electron Beam Physical Vapour Deposition and Magnetron Sputtering. The salient feature of GFS is the additional Argon gas flow that transports the sputtered material from the source to the substrate. Reactive deposition of nitrides or oxides can be achieved by injecting reactive gas from a second gas inlet into the gas stream. This prevents target poisoning and a constant high deposition rate can be achieved. In comparison to other PVD-techniques GFS operates in a high pressure regime between 0.3 and 0.7 mbar. Furthermore, the gas flow coats areas which are not in line-of-sight position without an additional substrate movement. The goal of this work is to deposit stoichiometric titanium nitride (TiN) by GFS. TiN coatings show a high hardness that is suitable for wear protection applications. It can also be easily deposited by reactive gas flow sputtering. The influence of different process parameters on microstructure formation and composition of titanium and TiN coatings was investigated. Typical process parameters that were varied are bias voltage, substrate temperature and magnitude of nitrogen injection. Microstructure and composition of the deposited coatings were analysed by Scanning Electron Microscopy and by Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDX), respectively. The crystal structure of the coatings was examined by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). In addition, micro hardness of the Ti and TiN coatings was tested, too. The results showed that only a combination of a specific N2 to Ar ratio and application of a bias voltage generated the typical golden coloured TiN coating. Deposition rates up to 10µm/h were observed. The magnitude of the bias voltage during coating the process caused in Ti and TiN coatings a striking change in microstructure. A fine columnar structure with open boundaries grew without bias support. This structure changed into a dense film by applying a bias voltage. Bias also supported formation of a uniform stoichiometric titanium nitride over the entire substrate surface. Normally, at the edges a ratio mismatch of Ti to N was found. The coatings showed a good adhesion in spite of bias application. The micro hardness of the coatings depended on process parameters and microstructure. The measured hardness values were in good agreement with the values from the literature.

Item URL in elib:https://elib.dlr.de/64901/
Document Type:Conference or Workshop Item (Speech)
Title:Titanium and Titanium Nitride Coatings produced by Gas Flow Sputtering
AuthorsInstitution or Email of AuthorsAuthor's ORCID iD
Date:June 2010
Open Access:No
Gold Open Access:No
In ISI Web of Science:No
Keywords:gas flow sputtering, titanium, titanium nitride, coating, non line of sight
Event Title:2nd International Workshop on Plasma and Electron Beam Technologies for Protective Coatings
Event Location:Kiew
Event Type:international Conference
Event Dates:16.-17. Juni 2010
Organizer:European Joint Committee on Plasma and Ion Surface Engineering - EJC-PISE
HGF - Research field:Aeronautics, Space and Transport (old)
HGF - Program:Aeronautics
HGF - Program Themes:Propulsion Systems (old)
DLR - Research area:Aeronautics
DLR - Program:L ER - Engine Research
DLR - Research theme (Project):L - Turbine Technologies (old)
Location: Köln-Porz
Institutes and Institutions:Institute of Materials Research > High Temperature and Functional Coatings
Deposited By: Tang, Stanley
Deposited On:10 Aug 2010 11:23
Last Modified:10 Aug 2010 11:23

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