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Impact of the Regulation Strategy on the Transient Behavior of a Brayton Heat Pump

Pettinari, Matteo and Frate, Guido Francesco and Tran, A. Phong and Oehler, Johannes and Stathopoulos, Panagiotis and Kyprianidis, Konstantinos and Ferrari, Lorenzo (2024) Impact of the Regulation Strategy on the Transient Behavior of a Brayton Heat Pump. Energies, 17 (5), p. 1020. Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI). doi: 10.3390/en17051020. ISSN 1996-1073.

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Official URL: https://www.mdpi.com/1996-1073/17/5/1020


High-temperature heat pumps are a key technology for enabling the complete integration of renewables into the power grid. Although these systems may come with several variants, Brayton heat pumps are gaining more and more interest because of the higher heat sink temperatures and the potential to leverage already existing components in the industry. Because these systems utilize renewable electricity to supply high-temperature heat, they are particularly suited for industry or energy storage applications, thus prompting the development of various demonstration plants to evaluate their performance and flexibility. Adapting to varying load conditions and swiftly responding to load adjustments represent crucial aspects for advancing such systems. In this context, this study delves into assessing the transient capabilities of Brayton heat pumps during thermal load management. A transient model of an emerging prototype is presented, comprising thermal and volume dynamics of the components. Furthermore, two reference scenarios are examined to assess the transient performance of the system, namely a thermal load alteration due to an abrupt change in the desired heat sink temperature and, secondly, to a sudden variation in the sink mass flow rate. Finally, two control methodologies - motor/compressor speed variation and fluid inventory control - are analyzed in the latter scenario, and a comparative analysis of their effectiveness is discussed. Results indicate that varying the compressor speed allows for a response time in the 8-20 min range for heat sink temperature regulation (first scenario). However, the regulation time is conditioned by the maximum thermal stress sustained by the heat exchangers. In the latter scenario, regulating the compressor speed shows a faster response time than the inventory control (2-5 min vs. 15 min). However, the inventory approach provides higher COPs in part-load conditions and better stability during the transient phase.

Item URL in elib:https://elib.dlr.de/204116/
Document Type:Article
Title:Impact of the Regulation Strategy on the Transient Behavior of a Brayton Heat Pump
AuthorsInstitution or Email of AuthorsAuthor's ORCID iDORCID Put Code
Tran, A. PhongUNSPECIFIEDhttps://orcid.org/0000-0002-3365-5500UNSPECIFIED
Oehler, JohannesUNSPECIFIEDhttps://orcid.org/0000-0001-6226-5328UNSPECIFIED
Date:21 February 2024
Journal or Publication Title:Energies
Refereed publication:Yes
Open Access:Yes
Gold Open Access:Yes
In ISI Web of Science:Yes
Page Range:p. 1020
EditorsEmailEditor's ORCID iDORCID Put Code
Publisher:Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI)
Keywords:high-temperature heat pump; Brayton heat pump; dynamic modeling; transient simulation; control system
HGF - Research field:Energy
HGF - Program:Materials and Technologies for the Energy Transition
HGF - Program Themes:High-Temperature Thermal Technologies
DLR - Research area:Energy
DLR - Program:E SP - Energy Storage
DLR - Research theme (Project):E - Low-Carbon Industrial Processes
Location: Cottbus
Institutes and Institutions:Institute of Low-Carbon Industrial Processes > High-Temperature Heat Pumps
Institute of Low-Carbon Industrial Processes > Simulation and Virtual Design
Deposited By: Tran, A. Phong
Deposited On:11 Jun 2024 12:42
Last Modified:11 Jun 2024 12:42

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