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HMI Design for Explainable Machine Learning Enhanced Risk Detection in Low-Altitude UAV Operations

Friedrich, Max and Küls, Jari and Findeisen, Marc and Peinecke, Niklas (2023) HMI Design for Explainable Machine Learning Enhanced Risk Detection in Low-Altitude UAV Operations. In: 42nd IEEE/AIAA Digital Avionics Systems Conference, DASC 2023. 2023 IEEE/AIAA 42nd Digital Avionics Systems Conference, 2023-10-01 - 2023-10-05, Barcelona, Spanien. doi: 10.1109/DASC58513.2023.10311252. ISBN 979-835033357-2. ISSN 2155-7195.

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Abstract

Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are increasingly utilized in low-altitude urban airspace for various applications. However, operating UAVs in populated areas poses safety risks, including proximity to people and property, unauthorized flight, and collisions with obstacles or hazards such as wildfires. Safety systems like geo-fencing and collision avoidance systems can detect known, well-defined risks but fail to address real-time detection of unforeseen hazards. To tackle this challenge, the paper proposes using an onboard camera on the UAV to continuously scan the environment. The captured video is analyzed in real-time using machine learning (ML) to detect, locate and classify a limited set of common hazards, determine their severity, and reroute the UAV to ensure flight safety. In situations where autonomous rerouting is deemed too risky by the system, the remote pilot is alerted, provided with detailed information on the detected hazards including the camera imagery, and is thus enabled to make an informed decision. Here, understanding the ML-model's results and decisions is crucial for effective decision-making, yet ML-models are often opaque and difficult for humans to comprehend. To address this issue, the paper suggests integrating principles of explainable artificial intelligence (XAI) into the human-machine interface (HMI) design to enhance interpretability and make the ML-models transparent and comprehensible. Specifically, principles of Class Activation Mapping (CAM) and Layerwise Relevance Propagation (LRP) are combined with a hierarchical HMI to present the information to the remote pilot. The paper describes relevant XAI-principles for HMI design and develops methods to comprehensively display ML-based information to remote pilots. These display design principles are then applied and integrated into an HMI design framework for supervising multiple UAVs. The resulting XAI-display prototype is discussed, limitations are identified, and further research steps are outlined for implementing the ML-models and testing the HMI with subject matter experts.

Item URL in elib:https://elib.dlr.de/199808/
Document Type:Conference or Workshop Item (Speech)
Title:HMI Design for Explainable Machine Learning Enhanced Risk Detection in Low-Altitude UAV Operations
Authors:
AuthorsInstitution or Email of AuthorsAuthor's ORCID iDORCID Put Code
Friedrich, MaxUNSPECIFIEDhttps://orcid.org/0000-0002-7103-3753UNSPECIFIED
Küls, JariUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Findeisen, MarcUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Peinecke, NiklasUNSPECIFIEDhttps://orcid.org/0000-0002-6683-2323UNSPECIFIED
Date:2023
Journal or Publication Title:42nd IEEE/AIAA Digital Avionics Systems Conference, DASC 2023
Refereed publication:Yes
Open Access:No
Gold Open Access:No
In SCOPUS:Yes
In ISI Web of Science:No
DOI:10.1109/DASC58513.2023.10311252
ISSN:2155-7195
ISBN:979-835033357-2
Status:Published
Keywords:Unmanned aerial vehicles, explainable artificial intelligence, human machine interface, risk visualization
Event Title:2023 IEEE/AIAA 42nd Digital Avionics Systems Conference
Event Location:Barcelona, Spanien
Event Type:international Conference
Event Start Date:1 October 2023
Event End Date:5 October 2023
HGF - Research field:Aeronautics, Space and Transport
HGF - Program:Aeronautics
HGF - Program Themes:Air Transportation and Impact
DLR - Research area:Aeronautics
DLR - Program:L AI - Air Transportation and Impact
DLR - Research theme (Project):L - Air Transport Operations and Impact Assessment
Location: Braunschweig
Institutes and Institutions:Institute of Flight Guidance > Unmanned Aircraft Systems
Institute of Flight Guidance > Pilot Assistance
Deposited By: Friedrich, Max
Deposited On:28 Nov 2023 11:24
Last Modified:24 Apr 2024 21:00

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