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Data + pilot biases in modern GNSS signals

Montenbruck, Oliver and Steigenberger, Peter and Sleewaegen, Jean-Marie (2023) Data + pilot biases in modern GNSS signals. GPS Solutions, 27 (3). Springer. doi: 10.1007/s10291-023-01448-y. ISSN 1080-5370.

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While traditional GNSS signals are always modulated with navigation data, various modern signals provide a distinct pilot channel without data modulation to support long coherent integration times. Intra-signal biases between the data and pilot components of such signals are evaluated for satellites of the GPS, Galileo, BeiDou-3, and QZSS constellations using measurements from a dedicated set of receivers. Peak values of about 2 ns are obtained for the GPS L5 signal, while slightly smaller values of up to 1 ns apply for the B1C and B2a signals of BeiDou-3 as well as the QZSS L1C signal. For Galileo E1 and E5a/b, data-pilot biases are confined to less than 0.1-0.3 ns, which is typically less than other pseudorange errors for these signals. Fully negligible values of <0.05 ns are obtained for the L1C and L2C signals of GPS as well as the L2C signal of QZSS in accord with expectations for time-multiplexed or interlaced modulations. To support consistent processing of multi-GNSS data in heterogenous networks, biases between combined data+pilot tracking and pilot-only tracking are derived in a dedicated zero-baseline receiver test bed. The analysis confirms the general understanding that biases between combined and pilot-only pseudoranges amount to a fixed fraction of the corresponding data-pilot biases. This fraction depends on the power sharing of the data and pilot component in the respective signals and amounts to 50% in most cases. The results of this study are expected to remove the prevailing problem of two distinct receiver groups in the generation of satellite clock and bias products by the International GNSS Service and to enable a rigorous and consistent use of these products by multi-GNSS users.

Item URL in elib:https://elib.dlr.de/194781/
Document Type:Article
Title:Data + pilot biases in modern GNSS signals
AuthorsInstitution or Email of AuthorsAuthor's ORCID iDORCID Put Code
Montenbruck, OliverDLR/GSOChttps://orcid.org/0000-0003-4783-745XUNSPECIFIED
Steigenberger, PeterDLR/GSOChttps://orcid.org/0000-0003-1905-6699147623688
Sleewaegen, Jean-MarieSeptentrio Satellite Navigation, Leuven, Belgiumhttps://orcid.org/0000-0001-9482-5385UNSPECIFIED
Date:20 April 2023
Journal or Publication Title:GPS Solutions
Refereed publication:Yes
Open Access:Yes
Gold Open Access:No
In ISI Web of Science:Yes
Keywords:Biases, Data channel, Pilot channel, combined tracking
HGF - Research field:Aeronautics, Space and Transport
HGF - Program:Space
HGF - Program Themes:Space System Technology
DLR - Research area:Raumfahrt
DLR - Program:R SY - Space System Technology
DLR - Research theme (Project):R - Infrastructure, Flight Dynamics, GPS
Location: Oberpfaffenhofen
Institutes and Institutions:Space Operations and Astronaut Training
Deposited By: Montenbruck, Dr.rer.nat.hab. Oliver
Deposited On:02 May 2023 10:52
Last Modified:28 Nov 2023 13:08

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