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Cleaner Skies during the COVID-19 Lockdown

Voigt, Christiane and Lelieveld, Jos and Schlager, Hans and Schneider, Johannes and Curtius, Joachim and Meerkötter, Ralf and Sauer, Daniel and Bugliaro Goggia, Luca and Bohn, Birger and Crowley, John N. and Erbertseder, Thilo and Groß, Silke Martha and Hahn, Valerian and Li, Qiang and Mertens, Mariano and Pöhlker, Mira L. and Pozzer, Andrea and Schumann, Ulrich and Tomsche, Laura and Williams, Jonathan and Zahn, Andreas and Andreae, Meinrat O. and Borrmann, Stephan and Bräuer, Tiziana Ilona and Dörich, Raphael and Dörnbrack, Andreas and Edtbauer, Achim and Ernle, Lisa and Fischer, Horst and Giez, Andreas and Granzin, Manuel and Grewe, Volker and Harder, Hartwig and Heinritzi, Martin and Holanda, Bruna A. and Jöckel, Patrick and Kaiser, Katharina and Krüger, Ovid O. and Lucke, Johannes and Marsing, Andreas and Martin, Anna and Matthes, Sigrun and Pöhlker, Christopher and Pöschl, Ulrich and Reifenberg, Simon Felix and Ringsdorf, Akima and Scheibe, Monika and Tadic, Ivan and Zauner-Wieczorek, Marcel and Henke, Rolf and Rapp, Markus (2022) Cleaner Skies during the COVID-19 Lockdown. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 103 (8), E1796-E1827. American Meteorological Society. doi: 10.1175/BAMS-D-21-0012.1. ISSN 0003-0007.

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Official URL: https://dx.doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-D-21-0012.1

Abstract

During spring 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic caused massive reductions in emissions from industry and ground and airborne transportation. To explore the resulting atmospheric com�position changes, we conducted the BLUESKY campaign with two research aircraft and measured trace gases, aerosols, and cloud properties from the boundary layer to the lower stratosphere. From 16 May to 9 June 2020, we performed 20 flights in the early COVID-19 lockdown phase over Europe and the Atlantic Ocean. We found up to 50% reductions in boundary layer nitrogen dioxide concentrations in urban areas from GOME-2B satellite data, along with carbon monoxide reductions in the pollution hot spots. We measured 20%–70% reductions in total reactive nitrogen, carbon monoxide, and fine mode aerosol concentration in profiles over German cities compared to a 10-yr dataset from passenger aircraft. The total aerosol mass was significantly reduced below 5 km altitude, and the organic aerosol fraction also aloft, indicative of decreased organic precursor gas emissions. The reduced aerosol optical thickness caused a perceptible shift in sky color toward the blue part of the spectrum (hence BLUESKY) and increased shortwave radiation at the surface. We find that the 80% decline in air traffic led to substantial reductions in nitrogen oxides at cruise altitudes, in contrail cover, and in resulting radiative forcing. The light extinction and depolarization by cirrus were also reduced in regions with substantially decreased air traffic. General circulation–chemistry model simulations indicate good agreement with the measurements when applying a reduced emission scenario. The comprehensive BLUESKY dataset documents the major impact of anthropogenic emissions on the atmospheric composition.

Item URL in elib:https://elib.dlr.de/191084/
Document Type:Article
Title:Cleaner Skies during the COVID-19 Lockdown
Authors:
AuthorsInstitution or Email of AuthorsAuthor's ORCID iDORCID Put Code
Voigt, ChristianeDLR, IPAhttps://orcid.org/0000-0001-8925-7731UNSPECIFIED
Lelieveld, JosMPI Mainz, MainzUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Schlager, HansDLR, IPAUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Schneider, JohannesMPI, MainzUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Curtius, JoachimUniv. Frankfurt am MainUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Meerkötter, RalfDLR, IPAhttps://orcid.org/0000-0002-3313-9901UNSPECIFIED
Sauer, DanielDLR, IPAhttps://orcid.org/0000-0002-0317-5063UNSPECIFIED
Bugliaro Goggia, LucaDLR, IPAhttps://orcid.org/0000-0003-4793-0101UNSPECIFIED
Bohn, BirgerFZ JülichUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Crowley, John N.MPI-CUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Erbertseder, ThiloUNSPECIFIEDhttps://orcid.org/0000-0003-4888-1065UNSPECIFIED
Groß, Silke MarthaDLR, IPAhttps://orcid.org/0000-0002-7467-9269UNSPECIFIED
Hahn, ValerianDLR, IPAUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Li, QiangDLR, IPAhttps://orcid.org/0000-0003-1951-8144UNSPECIFIED
Mertens, MarianoDLR, IPAhttps://orcid.org/0000-0003-3549-6889UNSPECIFIED
Pöhlker, Mira L.MPI für Chemie, MainzUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Pozzer, AndreaMax-Planck-Institute of Chemistry, Mainz GermanyUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Schumann, UlrichDLR, IPAhttps://orcid.org/0000-0001-5255-6869UNSPECIFIED
Tomsche, LauraDLR, IPAUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Williams, JonathanMPI-CUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Zahn, AndreasKIT, KarlsruheUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Andreae, Meinrat O.Biogeochemistry Department, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, 55128 Mainz, Germanyhttps://orcid.org/0000-0003-1968-7925UNSPECIFIED
Borrmann, StephanMPI for Chemistry, MainzUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Bräuer, Tiziana IlonaDLR, IPAhttps://orcid.org/0000-0003-2432-5152UNSPECIFIED
Dörich, RaphaelMPI-CUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Dörnbrack, AndreasDLR, IPAhttps://orcid.org/0000-0003-0936-0216UNSPECIFIED
Edtbauer, AchimUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Ernle, LisaUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Fischer, HorstMPI Chemie, MainzUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Giez, AndreasDLR, FXUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Granzin, ManuelUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Grewe, VolkerDLR, IPAhttps://orcid.org/0000-0002-8012-6783UNSPECIFIED
Harder, HartwigMPIC, MainzUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Heinritzi, MartinUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Holanda, Bruna A.MPI Chemie, MainzUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Jöckel, PatrickDLR, IPAhttps://orcid.org/0000-0002-8964-1394UNSPECIFIED
Kaiser, KatharinaMPI-CUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Krüger, Ovid O.Multiphase Chemistry Department, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, 55128 Mainz, GermanyUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Lucke, JohannesDLR, IPAUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Marsing, AndreasDLR, IPAhttps://orcid.org/0000-0002-5006-2133UNSPECIFIED
Martin, AnnaMPI-CUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Matthes, SigrunDLR, IPAUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Pöhlker, ChristopherMPI für Chemie, MainzUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Pöschl, UlrichMax Planck Insitut für Chemie, MainzUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Reifenberg, Simon FelixMPI-CUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Ringsdorf, AkimaUniv. FrankfurtUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Scheibe, MonikaDLR, IPAUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Tadic, IvanMPI-CUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Zauner-Wieczorek, MarcelUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Henke, RolfUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Rapp, MarkusDLR, IPAhttps://orcid.org/0000-0003-1508-5900UNSPECIFIED
Date:2022
Journal or Publication Title:Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society
Refereed publication:Yes
Open Access:Yes
Gold Open Access:No
In SCOPUS:Yes
In ISI Web of Science:Yes
Volume:103
DOI:10.1175/BAMS-D-21-0012.1
Page Range:E1796-E1827
Publisher:American Meteorological Society
ISSN:0003-0007
Status:Published
Keywords:COVID, anthropogenic emissions, atmosphere, composiiton, clouds, climate
HGF - Research field:Aeronautics, Space and Transport
HGF - Program:Aeronautics
HGF - Program Themes:Air Transportation and Impact
DLR - Research area:Aeronautics
DLR - Program:L AI - Air Transportation and Impact
DLR - Research theme (Project):L - Climate, Weather and Environment
Location: Oberpfaffenhofen
Institutes and Institutions:Institute of Atmospheric Physics
Institute of Atmospheric Physics > Cloud Physics
Institute of Atmospheric Physics > Lidar
Institute of Atmospheric Physics > Earth System Modelling
Deposited By: Voigt, Dr.rer.nat. Christiane
Deposited On:29 Nov 2022 07:45
Last Modified:19 Oct 2023 14:31

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