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Train Drivers’ Reaction Times to A Visual Detection Task as Benchmark for ATO Systems

Bosch, Esther Johanna and Thomas-Friedrich, Birte and Goralzik, Anne (2022) Train Drivers’ Reaction Times to A Visual Detection Task as Benchmark for ATO Systems. In: 5th German Conference on Rail Human Factors. 5th German Workshop on Rail Human Factors, 9. Nov. 2022, Braunschweig.

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Abstract

Automated Train Operation (ATO) systems are designed to take over various subtasks of train driving. By this, ATO has the potential to make railway mobility safer, more energy-efficient and increase the overall capacity of the network. In order to ensure that an ATO system has a sufficient quality to take over driving tasks, the safety needs to be determined. According to the European Commission, the safety responsibility shifts from the human to ATO from Grade of Automation 3 upwards. In order to conduct a proper risk evaluation of the new system, an existing reference system is needed. The single point of reference that is currently existing is the human with his or her performance as a train driver. In their role as train drivers, humans rely on visual and auditory sensory input to evaluate the current state and risk of the overall system, consisting of the train and the driving environment. A literature search was conducted and revealed that the visual system is most important for a train driver’s task performance. Therefore, in the present experimental study, human performance was investigated with a visual detection task in a high fidelity train driving simulator. Detection performance of train drivers was operationalized by measuring reaction times to cuboids that appeared on the driving track. The size of the cuboids was varied (90 cm vs. 180 cm) as well as the color that either led to a high contrast or a low contrast in relation to the driving background. Furthermore, aspects of railway operations were varied. The type of train protection system was either the German standard (punctiform train protection system “PZB” or European Train Control System (ETCS) level 2. The maximum speed had four levels: driving on sight, 40 km/h, 100 km/h and 160 km/h. In a simulator study with 15 train drivers, differences in the resulting reaction times to the occurring cuboids were recorded. In the presentation, an overview of the simulator study and preliminary results are provided. Insights of their meaning for ATO systems are discussed.

Item URL in elib:https://elib.dlr.de/190808/
Document Type:Conference or Workshop Item (Speech)
Title:Train Drivers’ Reaction Times to A Visual Detection Task as Benchmark for ATO Systems
Authors:
AuthorsInstitution or Email of AuthorsAuthor's ORCID iDORCID Put Code
Bosch, Esther JohannaUNSPECIFIEDhttps://orcid.org/0000-0002-6525-2650UNSPECIFIED
Thomas-Friedrich, BirteUNSPECIFIEDhttps://orcid.org/0000-0002-1957-5029UNSPECIFIED
Goralzik, AnneUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Date:November 2022
Journal or Publication Title:5th German Conference on Rail Human Factors
Refereed publication:Yes
Open Access:No
Gold Open Access:No
In SCOPUS:No
In ISI Web of Science:No
Status:Published
Keywords:ATO Systems, Visual Perception, Reaction Time, Benchmark
Event Title:5th German Workshop on Rail Human Factors
Event Location:Braunschweig
Event Type:international Conference
Event Dates:9. Nov. 2022
HGF - Research field:Aeronautics, Space and Transport
HGF - Program:Transport
HGF - Program Themes:Transport System
DLR - Research area:Transport
DLR - Program:V VS - Verkehrssystem
DLR - Research theme (Project):V - Energie und Verkehr (old)
Location: Braunschweig
Institutes and Institutions:Institute of Transportation Systems > Information Flow Modelling in Mobility Systems, BS
Institute of Transportation Systems > Design and Evaluation of Mobility Solutions, BS
Deposited By: Bosch, Esther Johanna
Deposited On:14 Dec 2022 14:19
Last Modified:14 Dec 2022 14:19

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