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Implementation and Real-Time Validation of a European Remain Well Clear Function for Unmanned Vehicles

Corraro, Gianluca and Corraro, Federico and Ciniglio, Umberto and Filippone, Edoardo and Peinecke, Niklas and Theunissen, Erik (2022) Implementation and Real-Time Validation of a European Remain Well Clear Function for Unmanned Vehicles. Aerospace, 9 (10). Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI). doi: 10.3390/aerospace9100531. ISSN 2226-4310.

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Official URL: https://www.mdpi.com/2226-4310/9/10/531


The full integration of Remotely Piloted unmanned vehicles into civil airspace requires first and foremost the integration of a traffic Detect and Avoid (DAA) system into the vehicle. The DAA system supports remote pilots in performing their task of remaining Well Clear from other aircraft and avoiding collisions. Several studies related to the design of a Remain Well Clear function have been performed that served as input for the development of technical standards applicable to non-European countries. In this paper, a Remain Well Clear implementation is proposed that, using the results of past international projects, fits European airspace needs and specificities and can be acceptable to both remote pilots and air traffic controllers, with only minimal impact on the standard operating procedures used for manned aircraft. The proposed Remain Well Clear software has been successfully validated through real-time simulations with pilots and controllers in the loop considering traffic encounters and mission scenarios typically found in European airspace. The achieved results highlight the appropriate situational awareness provided by the proposed RWC function and its effective support to the remote pilot in making adequate decisions in conflict solving. Real-time simulation tests showed that, in almost all cases, an RWC maneuver is successfully performed, giving the RP sufficient time to assess the conflict, coordinate with the controller, if needed, and execute the maneuver. The fundamental role of the proposed RWC function has been especially evident in uncontrolled airspace classes where the controller does not provide any separation provision. Moreover, its effectiveness has also been tested in encounters with aircraft flying under visual flight rules in controlled airspace, where the controller is not informed or has less information regarding these aircraft. The results from validation tests imply two key potential safety benefits, namely: the mitigation of performing a collision avoidance maneuver and the prevention of potential conflict while not disrupting the traffic flow with possible further consequences of generating other potentially hazardous situations.

Item URL in elib:https://elib.dlr.de/188392/
Document Type:Article
Title:Implementation and Real-Time Validation of a European Remain Well Clear Function for Unmanned Vehicles
AuthorsInstitution or Email of AuthorsAuthor's ORCID iDORCID Put Code
Peinecke, NiklasUNSPECIFIEDhttps://orcid.org/0000-0002-6683-2323UNSPECIFIED
Date:21 September 2022
Journal or Publication Title:Aerospace
Refereed publication:Yes
Open Access:Yes
Gold Open Access:Yes
In ISI Web of Science:Yes
Publisher:Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI)
Keywords:detect and avoid, remain well clear, remotely piloted aircraft systems, unmanned aerial system, fast-time simulation, real-time simulation
HGF - Research field:Aeronautics, Space and Transport
HGF - Program:Aeronautics
HGF - Program Themes:Air Transportation and Impact
DLR - Research area:Aeronautics
DLR - Program:L AI - Air Transportation and Impact
DLR - Research theme (Project):L - Integrated Flight Guidance
Location: Braunschweig
Institutes and Institutions:Institute of Flight Guidance > Pilot Assistance
Deposited By: Peinecke, Dr.rer.nat. Niklas
Deposited On:11 Oct 2022 08:22
Last Modified:11 Oct 2022 08:22

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