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Task modelling and model validation for car driving

Käthner, David and Huemer, Anja Katharina and Ihme, Klas and Jipp, Meike (2022) Task modelling and model validation for car driving. International Conference on Applied Human Factors and Ergonomics, 24.-28. Juli 2022, New York, USA.

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Abstract

Task analysis is a powerful tool to model human behavior within sociotechnical systems. However, the validation beyond expert judgement has received inadequate attention. The problem is exacerbated in dynamic environments where discrete task execution stages are difficult to model. We argue that model validation should follow an iterative approach using the TASC conceptual framework presented here. Building on Gray and Boehm-Davis' (2000) notion of interactive behavior, TASC splits behavior into the Task under consideration, Actions taken, the Situation, and the human embodied Cognition. The approach consists of a) conducting the task analysis to define a task model, b) data collection, and c) validating the task model on the levels of action, situation, and cognition. This framework is demonstrated using a lightweight task analysis of the driving task. A Cognitive Work Analysis (CWA) of the driving task was conducted, yielding five top-level goals. Subsequently, data were gathered in a driving simulator. Twenty-one participants drove on a two-lane motorway in two scenarios in random order. The "controlled" scenario consisted of vehicles showing very predictable behavior; the "realistic" scenario had medium-dense traffic behaving similarly to everyday traffic. The participants were instructed to drive according to traffic rules. Eye-tracking data were recorded. Nine participants drove the two scenarios again while being instructed to think aloud focusing on perceptions and goals. Based on the data, we produced separate graphical representations for the TASC levels of action, situation, and cognition representing the time course of the drive for each subject. The cognition-level was split into perception (eye tracking) and goals (thinking aloud). Finally, on each level, each CWA goal was operationalized and statistically evaluated using linear mixed models. Behavior on right lane differed markedly from behavior on left lane in line with the CWA goals. Goals appeared clearly in driving actions, gaze behavior, and thinking aloud utterances. Visual behavior shows a distinctive pattern depending on situational requirements in different phazes of the drive. The TASC-framework proved very useful to validate the CWA task analysis. The idea of task analysis has limitations in modelling driving because of a strong reliance on discrete states. Yet an important property of the driving task is its execution in the continuous world of time, space, and energy. Goals act frequently not as states to be achieved but as constraints on possible actions and can be quickly altered depending on the dynamic situation. More effort should be directed towards validation of task models. We recommend making operationalization of task models standard practice when conducting task analysis to help planning of evaluation studies and assessment of generalizability of results beyond the task environment studied. To gain a better understanding of the cognition of task execution, more research into setting of multiple goals, action selection, and situation representation in dynamic environments is highly desirable.

Item URL in elib:https://elib.dlr.de/148528/
Document Type:Conference or Workshop Item (Speech)
Title:Task modelling and model validation for car driving
Authors:
AuthorsInstitution or Email of AuthorsAuthor's ORCID iD
Käthner, DavidDavid.Kaethner (at) dlr.dehttps://orcid.org/0000-0003-4168-2266
Huemer, Anja Katharinaa.huemer (at) tu-braunschweig.dehttps://orcid.org/0000-0002-1054-7777
Ihme, KlasKlas.Ihme (at) dlr.dehttps://orcid.org/0000-0002-7911-3512
Jipp, Meikemeike.jipp (at) dlr.deUNSPECIFIED
Date:26 July 2022
Refereed publication:No
Open Access:Yes
Gold Open Access:No
In SCOPUS:No
In ISI Web of Science:No
Status:Published
Keywords:task analysis, task modelling, CWA, driving
Event Title:International Conference on Applied Human Factors and Ergonomics
Event Location:New York, USA
Event Type:international Conference
Event Dates:24.-28. Juli 2022
HGF - Research field:Aeronautics, Space and Transport
HGF - Program:Transport
HGF - Program Themes:Transport System
DLR - Research area:Transport
DLR - Program:V VS - Verkehrssystem
DLR - Research theme (Project):V - Energie und Verkehr
Location: Berlin-Adlershof , Braunschweig
Institutes and Institutions:Institute of Transportation Systems
Institute of Transportation Systems > Information Flow Modelling in Mobility Systems, BS
Institute of Transport Research > Leitungsbereich VF
Deposited By: Käthner, David
Deposited On:04 Nov 2022 10:13
Last Modified:04 Nov 2022 10:13

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