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Teleoperation of Highly Automated Vehicles in Public Transport: User-Centered Design of a Human-Machine Interface for Remote-Operation and Its Expert Usability Evaluation

Kettwich, Carmen and Schrank, Andreas Gottfried and Oehl, Michael (2021) Teleoperation of Highly Automated Vehicles in Public Transport: User-Centered Design of a Human-Machine Interface for Remote-Operation and Its Expert Usability Evaluation. Multimodal Technologies and Interaction. Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI). doi: 10.3390/mti5050026. ISSN 2414-4088.

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Abstract

Paving the way to future mobility, teleoperation of vehicles promises a reachable solution to effectively use the benefits of automated driving as long as fully automated vehicles (SAE 5) are not entirely feasible. Safety and reliability are assured by a human operator who remotely observes the vehicle and takes over control in cases of disturbances that exceed the vehicle automation’s skills. In order to integrate the vehicle’s automation and human remote-operation, we developed a novel user-centered human-machine interface (HMI) for teleoperation. It is tailored to the remote-operation of a highly automated shuttle (SAE 4) by a public transport control center and based on a systematic analysis of scenarios, of which detailed requirements were derived. Subsequently, a paper-pencil prototype was generated and refined until a click-dummy emerged. This click-dummy was evaluated by twelve control center professionals. The experts were presented the prototype in regular mode and were then asked to solve three scenarios with disturbances in the system. Using structured interview and questionnaire methodology, the prototype was evaluated regarding its usability, situation awareness, acceptance, and perceived workload. Results support our HMI design for teleoperation of a highly automated shuttle, especially regarding usability, acceptance, and workload. Participant ratings and comments indicated particularly high satisfaction with the interaction design to resolve disturbances and the presentation of camera images. Participants’ feedbacks provide valuable information for a refined HMI design as well as for further research.

Item URL in elib:https://elib.dlr.de/146600/
Document Type:Article
Title:Teleoperation of Highly Automated Vehicles in Public Transport: User-Centered Design of a Human-Machine Interface for Remote-Operation and Its Expert Usability Evaluation
Authors:
AuthorsInstitution or Email of AuthorsAuthor's ORCID iD
Kettwich, CarmenCarmen.Kettwich (at) dlr.dehttps://orcid.org/0000-0001-6814-7058
Schrank, Andreas GottfriedAndreas.Schrank (at) dlr.dehttps://orcid.org/0000-0001-8352-1052
Oehl, MichaelMichael.Oehl (at) dlr.dehttps://orcid.org/0000-0002-0871-2286
Date:5 May 2021
Journal or Publication Title:Multimodal Technologies and Interaction
Refereed publication:Yes
Open Access:Yes
Gold Open Access:Yes
In SCOPUS:Yes
In ISI Web of Science:Yes
DOI :10.3390/mti5050026
Publisher:Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI)
ISSN:2414-4088
Status:Published
Keywords:human-machine interaction; interface for remote-control; teleoperation; automated driving; usability evaluation; expert evaluation; situational awareness; workload; user acceptance
HGF - Research field:Aeronautics, Space and Transport
HGF - Program:Transport
HGF - Program Themes:Transport System
DLR - Research area:Transport
DLR - Program:V VS - Verkehrssystem
DLR - Research theme (Project):V - Energie und Verkehr
Location: Braunschweig
Institutes and Institutions:Institute of Transportation Systems > Cooperative Systems, BS
Deposited By: Schrank, Andreas Gottfried
Deposited On:07 Dec 2021 12:01
Last Modified:28 Jan 2022 11:58

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