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Theory of Contrail Formation for Fuel Cells

Gierens, Klaus Martin (2021) Theory of Contrail Formation for Fuel Cells. Aerospace, 8 (164), pp. 1-13. Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI). doi: 10.3390/aerospace8060164. ISSN 2226-4310.

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Official URL: https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospace8060164

Abstract

The theory of contrail formation for fuel cells is derived. It is a variant of the well-known Schmidt-Appleman theory. The contrail factor or G-factor for fuel cells is much larger than for jet engines, such that condensation of the exhaust water vapour can happen even at the Earth’s surface in sufficiently cold (a few degrees above zero) weather. Contrail formation from fuel cells will occur frequently in the lower troposphere and is unavoidable below moderate temperature limits, in the upper troposphere and in the stratosphere. Despite the high frequency of contrail formation from fuel cells, their climate impact is lower than that of contrails from jet engines. Most fuel cell contrails will be short and those persistent ones will be optically thinner and have on average a shorter lifetime than traditional persistent contrails. From a climate point of view, the introduction of fuel cells into aviation can be recommended.

Item URL in elib:https://elib.dlr.de/142742/
Document Type:Article
Title:Theory of Contrail Formation for Fuel Cells
Authors:
AuthorsInstitution or Email of AuthorsAuthor's ORCID iD
Gierens, Klaus MartinDLR, IPAhttps://orcid.org/0000-0001-6983-5370
Date:2021
Journal or Publication Title:Aerospace
Refereed publication:Yes
Open Access:Yes
Gold Open Access:Yes
In SCOPUS:Yes
In ISI Web of Science:Yes
Volume:8
DOI :10.3390/aerospace8060164
Page Range:pp. 1-13
Publisher:Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI)
ISSN:2226-4310
Status:Published
Keywords:new propulsion concepts in aviation; fuel cells; contrails
HGF - Research field:Aeronautics, Space and Transport
HGF - Program:Aeronautics
HGF - Program Themes:Air Transportation and Impact
DLR - Research area:Aeronautics
DLR - Program:L AI - Air Transportation and Impact
DLR - Research theme (Project):L - Climate, Weather and Environment
Location: Oberpfaffenhofen
Institutes and Institutions:Institute of Atmospheric Physics > Earth System Modelling
Deposited By: Gierens, Dr.rer.nat. Klaus Martin
Deposited On:06 Jul 2021 11:08
Last Modified:07 Jul 2021 13:01

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