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Precision-Aided Partial Ambiguity Resolution Scheme for Instantaneous RTK Positioning

Castro-Arvizu, J. Manuel and Medina, Daniel and Ziebold, Ralf and Vilà-Valls, Jordi and Chaumette, Eric and Closas, Pau (2021) Precision-Aided Partial Ambiguity Resolution Scheme for Instantaneous RTK Positioning. Remote Sensing, 13 (15). Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI). doi: 10.3390/rs13152904. ISSN 2072-4292.

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The use of carrier phase data is the main driver for high-precision Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) positioning solutions, such as Real-Time Kinematic (RTK). However, carrier phase observations are ambiguous by an unknown number of cycles, and their use in RTK relies on the process of mapping real-valued ambiguities to integer ones, so-called Integer Ambiguity Resolution (IAR). The main goal of IAR is to enhance the position solution by virtue of its correlation with the estimated integer ambiguities. With the deployment of new GNSS constellations and frequencies, a large number of observations is available. While this is generally positive, positioning in medium and long baselines is challenging due to the atmospheric residuals. In this context, the process of solving the complete set of ambiguities, so-called Full Ambiguity Resolution (FAR), is limiting and may lead to a decreased availability of precise positioning. Alternatively, Partial Ambiguity Resolution (PAR) relaxes the condition of estimating the complete vector of ambiguities and, instead, finds a subset of them to maximize the availability. This article reviews the state-of-the-art PAR schemes, addresses the analytical performance of a PAR estimator following a generalization of the Cramér–Rao Bound (CRB) for the RTK problem, and introduces Precision-Driven PAR (PD-PAR). The latter constitutes a new PAR scheme which employs the formal precision of the (potentially fixed) positioning solution as selection criteria for the subset of ambiguities to fix. Numerical simulations are used to showcase the performance of conventional FAR and FAR approaches, and the proposed PD-PAR against the generalized CRB associated with PAR problems. Real-data experimental analysis for a medium baseline complements the synthetic scenario. The results demonstrate that (i) the generalization for the RTK CRB constitutes a valid lower bound to assess the asymptotic behavior of PAR estimators, and (ii) the proposed PD-PAR technique outperforms existing FAR and PAR solutions as a non-recursive estimator for medium and long baselines.

Item URL in elib:https://elib.dlr.de/142622/
Document Type:Article
Title:Precision-Aided Partial Ambiguity Resolution Scheme for Instantaneous RTK Positioning
AuthorsInstitution or Email of AuthorsAuthor's ORCID iDORCID Put Code
Castro-Arvizu, J. ManuelUNSPECIFIEDhttps://orcid.org/0000-0002-2361-4641UNSPECIFIED
Medina, DanielUNSPECIFIEDhttps://orcid.org/0000-0002-1586-3269UNSPECIFIED
Ziebold, RalfUNSPECIFIEDhttps://orcid.org/0000-0002-0488-6457UNSPECIFIED
Vilà-Valls, JordiUNSPECIFIEDhttps://orcid.org/0000-0001-7858-4171UNSPECIFIED
Chaumette, EricUNSPECIFIEDhttps://orcid.org/0000-0002-7029-3019UNSPECIFIED
Closas, PauUNSPECIFIEDhttps://orcid.org/0000-0002-5960-6600UNSPECIFIED
Date:July 2021
Journal or Publication Title:Remote Sensing
Refereed publication:Yes
Open Access:Yes
Gold Open Access:Yes
In ISI Web of Science:Yes
EditorsEmailEditor's ORCID iDORCID Put Code
Publisher:Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI)
Keywords:RTK, GNSS, precise positioning, ambiguity resolution, PAR, CRB, integer least squares
HGF - Research field:Aeronautics, Space and Transport
HGF - Program:Space
HGF - Program Themes:Communication, Navigation, Quantum Technology
DLR - Research area:Raumfahrt
DLR - Program:R KNQ - Communication, Navigation, Quantum Technology
DLR - Research theme (Project):R - Project Navigation 4.0
Location: Neustrelitz
Institutes and Institutions:Institute of Communication and Navigation > Nautical Systems
Deposited By: Castro Arvizu, Juan Manuel
Deposited On:20 Sep 2021 13:33
Last Modified:20 Sep 2021 13:33

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