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Automated Vehicles in Public Transport: Deployment Scenarios and Expectations of Users, Providers and Local Authorities

Stark, Kerstin and Gade, Kay and Heinrichs, Dirk (2018) Automated Vehicles in Public Transport: Deployment Scenarios and Expectations of Users, Providers and Local Authorities. European Transport Conference, 10.-12.Okt.2018, Dublin.

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Abstract

Automates vehicles (AV) are expected to change the mobility of persons and the design of transport systems. Firstly, automation of individual privately used vehicles is expected to make car use more attractive as in-vehicle time can be used for other purposes than driving. Secondly, novel concepts of shared automated vehicles are expected to significantly lower the cost of taxi-like services. In our contribution, we place a focus on a third area of AV application that has received much less attention so far: the potential of the technology to transform Public Transport (PT). Here, AV can make the service more demand responsive, more affordable and comfortable for users and more economical for operators. At the same time, PT operators face increasing competition with newcomers like Uber, Google and others. Against this background, there is broad consensus that AV might be both, a threat and an opportunity for Public Transport. In a similar vein, local authorities are challenged by increasing transport volumes, congestion and air-pollution and seek for measures to reduce vehicle miles travelled without limiting the mobility of their inhabitants. Providing an efficient and attractive PT is one possible way to that aim. However, there is little research so far on how AV might impact on PT, how it supports meeting the challenges PT and municipalities face and how the integration of such vehicles into existing systems can be achieved in the best possible way. To address this question it is not sufficient to merely focus on technical feasibility. Instead, user acceptance and favourable settings in which AV might develop need more attention. Our contribution goes beyond user studies that look into acceptance merely in terms of market diffusion and consumer acceptance. Rather, to identify favourable settings for AV we focus on and discuss the users´ mobility needs as well the requirements of operators and local authorities. As research on AV faces the methodological difficulty that the technology has not become a reality on the streets yet, it is hard for test persons to imagine possible outcomes and benefits. Therefore, we use explorative and participatory methods to analyse complex mobility needs and requirements in reference to different use cases of AV. The qualitative study design combines an extensive literature review, expert interviews and workshops with experts and users. User groups were selected in line with the literature and entail individuals with different mobility preferences and behaviours, including physically handicapped persons, elderly persons or school students. The applied use case scenarios were systematically elaborated and cover relevant aspects such as area selection, business model, operational concept and usability. We present the results of this study regarding requirements and needs of users, transport operators and local urban and transport planning authorities considering our use case scenarios. For example, while there is clear ambition of PT operators to provide individualized on-demand services the use case of the “robo-taxi” is controversial among local authority representatives, who fear empty miles and an increased traffic volume - and who urge that adequate regulatory instruments need to be developed. Regarding the needs of users our results show for example that safety is among the most important challenges, but hardly in terms of technical aspects but in terms of protection against criminals and harassment. This again challenges use cases that entail ride-share or ride-pooling. We conclude with recommendations for transport operators and local authorities regarding favourable use cases and transport solutions in combination with AV. Further, we discuss possible conflicts that might arise between the needs of users and transport operators´ and municipalities´ requirements.

Item URL in elib:https://elib.dlr.de/127058/
Document Type:Conference or Workshop Item (Speech)
Title:Automated Vehicles in Public Transport: Deployment Scenarios and Expectations of Users, Providers and Local Authorities
Authors:
AuthorsInstitution or Email of AuthorsAuthors ORCID iD
Stark, KerstinKerstin.Stark (at) dlr.deUNSPECIFIED
Gade, KayKay.Gade (at) dlr.deUNSPECIFIED
Heinrichs, Dirkdirk.heinrichs (at) dlr.deUNSPECIFIED
Date:2018
Refereed publication:Yes
Open Access:No
In SCOPUS:No
In ISI Web of Science:No
Status:Published
Keywords:Automatisiertes Fahren im ÖPNV
Event Title:European Transport Conference
Event Location:Dublin
Event Type:international Conference
Event Dates:10.-12.Okt.2018
HGF - Research field:Aeronautics, Space and Transport
HGF - Program:Transport
HGF - Program Themes:Transport System
DLR - Research area:Transport
DLR - Program:V VS - Verkehrssystem
DLR - Research theme (Project):V - Zukunftsbilder eines automatisierten integrierten Verkehrssystems
Location: Berlin-Adlershof
Institutes and Institutions:Institute of Transport Research > Mobility and Urban Development
Deposited By: Stark, Kerstin
Deposited On:20 May 2019 17:03
Last Modified:20 May 2019 17:03

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