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Cooperative Relative Positioning for Vehicular Environments

Ponte Mueller, Fabian (2018) Cooperative Relative Positioning for Vehicular Environments. Dissertation, Universität Passau.

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Abstract

Advanced driver assistance systems play an important role in increasing the safety on today's roads. The knowledge about the other vehicles' positions is a fundamental prerequisite for numerous safety critical applications, making it possible to foresee critical situations, warn the driver or autonomously intervene. Forward collision avoidance systems, lane change assistants or adaptive cruise control are examples of safety relevant applications that require an accurate, continuous and reliable relative position of surrounding vehicles. Currently, the positions of surrounding vehicles is estimated by measuring the distance with e.g. radar, laser scanners or camera systems. However, all these techniques have limitations in their perception range, as all of them can only detect objects in their line-of-sight. The limited perception range of today's vehicles can be extended in future by using cooperative approaches based on Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) communication. In this thesis, the capabilities of cooperative relative positioning for vehicles will be assessed in terms of its accuracy, continuity and reliability. A novel approach where Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) raw data is exchanged between the vehicles is presented. Vehicles use GNSS pseudorange and Doppler measurements from surrounding vehicles to estimate the relative positioning vector in a cooperative way. In this thesis, this approach is shown to outperform the absolute position subtraction as it is able to effectively cancel out common errors to both GNSS receivers. This is modeled theoretically and demonstrated empirically using simulated signals from a GNSS constellation simulator. In order to cope with GNSS outages and to have a sufficiently good relative position estimate even in strong multipath environments, a sensor fusion approach is proposed. In addition to the GNSS raw data, inertial measurements from speedometers, accelerometers and turn rate sensors from each vehicle are exchanged over V2V communication links. A Bayesian approach is applied to consider the uncertainties inherently to each of the information sources. In a dynamic Bayesian network, the temporal relationship of the relative position estimate is predicted by using relative vehicle movement models. Also real world measurements in highway, rural and urban scenarios are performed in the scope of this work to demonstrate the performance of the cooperative relative positioning approach based on sensor fusion. The results show that the relative position of another vehicle towards the ego vehicle can be estimated with sub-meter accuracy in highway scenarios. Here, good reliability and 90% availability with an uncertainty of less than 2.5m is achieved. In rural environments, drives through forests and towns are correctly bridged with the support of on-board sensors. In an urban environment, the difficult estimation of the ego vehicle heading has a mayor impact in the relative position estimate, yielding large errors in its longitudinal component.

Item URL in elib:https://elib.dlr.de/121786/
Document Type:Thesis (Dissertation)
Title:Cooperative Relative Positioning for Vehicular Environments
Authors:
AuthorsInstitution or Email of AuthorsAuthors ORCID iD
Ponte Mueller, Fabianfabian.pontemueller (at) dlr.deUNSPECIFIED
Date:14 May 2018
Refereed publication:Yes
Open Access:Yes
Gold Open Access:No
In SCOPUS:No
In ISI Web of Science:No
Number of Pages:247
Status:Published
Keywords:Cooperative, Relative, Positioning, Vehicle, V2V Communication, GNSS, Inertial
Institution:Universität Passau
Department:Fakultät für Informatik und Mathematik
HGF - Research field:Aeronautics, Space and Transport
HGF - Program:Transport
HGF - Program Themes:Terrestrial Vehicles (old)
DLR - Research area:Transport
DLR - Program:V BF - Bodengebundene Fahrzeuge
DLR - Research theme (Project):V - Project Fahrzeugintelligenz und Fahrwerk (old)
Location: Oberpfaffenhofen
Institutes and Institutions:Institute of Communication and Navigation > Communications Systems
Deposited By: Ponte Müller, Fabian
Deposited On:21 Sep 2018 10:24
Last Modified:31 Jul 2019 20:19

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