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Stratospheric Injection of Brominated Very Short‐Lived Substances: Aircraft Observations in the Western Pacific and Representation in Global Models

Wales, Pamela A. and Salawitch, Ross J. and Nicely, Julie M. and Anderson, Daniel C. and Canty, Timothy P. and Baidar, Sunil and Dix, Barbara and Koenig, Theodore K. and Volkamer, Rainer and Chen, Dexian and Huey, L. Gregory and Tanner, David J. and Cuevas, Carlos A. and Fernandez, Rafael P. and Kinnison, Douglas E. and Lamarque, Jean‐Francois and Saiz‐Lopez, Alfonso and Atlas, Elliot L. and Hall, Samuel R. and Navarro, Maria A. and Pan, Laura L. and Schauffler, Sue M. and Stell, Meghan and Tilmes, Simone and Ullmann, Kirk and Weinheimer, Andrew J. and Akiyoshi, Hideharu and Chipperfield, Martyn P. and Deushi, Makoto and Dhomse, Sandip S. and Feng, Wuhu and Graf, Phoebe and Hossaini, Ryan and Jöckel, Patrick and Mancini, Eva and Michou, Martine and Morgenstern, Olaf and Oman, Luke D. and Pitari, Giovanni and Plummer, David A. and Revell, Laura E. and Rozanov, Eugene and Saint‐Martin, David and Schofield, Robyn and Stenke, Andrea and Stone, Kane A. and Visioni, Daniele and Yamashita, Yousuke and Zeng, Guang (2018) Stratospheric Injection of Brominated Very Short‐Lived Substances: Aircraft Observations in the Western Pacific and Representation in Global Models. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, pp. 1-30. Wiley. DOI: 10.1029/2017JD027978 ISSN 0148-0227

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Official URL: https://agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1029/2017JD027978

Abstract

We quantify the stratospheric injection of brominated very short‐lived substances (VSLS) based on aircraft observations acquired in winter 2014 above the Tropical Western Pacific during the CONvective TRansport of Active Species in the Tropics (CONTRAST) and the Airborne Tropical TRopopause EXperiment (ATTREX) campaigns. The overall contribution of VSLS to stratospheric bromine was determined to be 5.0 ± 2.1 ppt, in agreement with the 5 ± 3 ppt estimate provided in the 2014 World Meteorological Organization (WMO) Ozone Assessment report (WMO 2014), but with lower uncertainty. Measurements of organic bromine compounds, including VSLS, were analyzed using CFC‐11 as a reference stratospheric tracer. From this analysis, 2.9 ± 0.6 ppt of bromine enters the stratosphere via organic source gas injection of VSLS. This value is two times the mean bromine content of VSLS measured at the tropical tropopause, for regions outside of the Tropical Western Pacific, summarized in WMO 2014. A photochemical box model, constrained to CONTRAST observations, was used to estimate inorganic bromine from measurements of BrO collected by two instruments. The analysis indicates that 2.1 ± 2.1 ppt of bromine enters the stratosphere via inorganic product gas injection. We also examine the representation of brominated VSLS within 14 global models that participated in the Chemistry‐Climate Model Initiative. The representation of stratospheric bromine in these models generally lies within the range of our empirical estimate. Models that include explicit representations of VSLS compare better with bromine observations in the lower stratosphere than models that utilize longer‐lived chemicals as a surrogate for VSLS.

Item URL in elib:https://elib.dlr.de/120171/
Document Type:Article
Title:Stratospheric Injection of Brominated Very Short‐Lived Substances: Aircraft Observations in the Western Pacific and Representation in Global Models
Authors:
AuthorsInstitution or Email of AuthorsAuthors ORCID iD
Wales, Pamela A.Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD, USAUNSPECIFIED
Salawitch, Ross J.Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD, USAUNSPECIFIED
Nicely, Julie M.Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD, USAUNSPECIFIED
Anderson, Daniel C.UNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Canty, Timothy P.UNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Baidar, SunilUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Dix, BarbaraUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Koenig, Theodore K.UNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Volkamer, RainerUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Chen, DexianUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Huey, L. GregoryUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Tanner, David J.UNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Cuevas, Carlos A.UNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Fernandez, Rafael P.UNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Kinnison, Douglas E.UNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Lamarque, Jean‐FrancoisUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Saiz‐Lopez, AlfonsoUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Atlas, Elliot L.UNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Hall, Samuel R.UNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Navarro, Maria A.UNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Pan, Laura L.UNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Schauffler, Sue M.UNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Stell, MeghanUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Tilmes, SimoneUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Ullmann, KirkUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Weinheimer, Andrew J.UNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Akiyoshi, HideharuUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Chipperfield, Martyn P.UNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Deushi, MakotoUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Dhomse, Sandip S.UNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Feng, WuhuUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Graf, PhoebeDLR, IPAhttps://orcid.org/0000-0002-7494-8035
Hossaini, RyanUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Jöckel, PatrickDLR, IPAhttps://orcid.org/0000-0002-8964-1394
Mancini, EvaUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Michou, MartineUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Morgenstern, OlafUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Oman, Luke D.UNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Pitari, GiovanniUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Plummer, David A.UNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Revell, Laura E.UNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Rozanov, EugeneUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Saint‐Martin, DavidUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Schofield, RobynUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Stenke, AndreaUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Stone, Kane A.UNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Visioni, DanieleUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Yamashita, YousukeUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Zeng, GuangUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Date:28 May 2018
Journal or Publication Title:Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres
Refereed publication:Yes
Open Access:Yes
Gold Open Access:No
In SCOPUS:Yes
In ISI Web of Science:Yes
DOI :10.1029/2017JD027978
Page Range:pp. 1-30
Publisher:Wiley
ISSN:0148-0227
Status:Published
Keywords:bromine, contrast, CCMI, VSLS, EMAC, ESCiMo, MESSy
HGF - Research field:Aeronautics, Space and Transport
HGF - Program:Space
HGF - Program Themes:Earth Observation
DLR - Research area:Raumfahrt
DLR - Program:R EO - Erdbeobachtung
DLR - Research theme (Project):R - Vorhaben Atmosphären- und Klimaforschung, R - Project Climatic relevance of atmospheric tracer gases, aerosols and clouds
Location: Oberpfaffenhofen
Institutes and Institutions:Institute of Atmospheric Physics > Earth System Modelling
Deposited By: Jöckel, Dr. Patrick
Deposited On:08 Jun 2018 14:04
Last Modified:31 Jul 2019 20:17

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