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Geomorphometric analysis of the 2014-2015 Bárðarbunga volcanic eruption, Iceland

Dirscherl, Mariel Christina and Rossi, Cristian (2018) Geomorphometric analysis of the 2014-2015 Bárðarbunga volcanic eruption, Iceland. Remote Sensing of Environment, 204, pp. 244-259. Elsevier. doi: 10.1016/j.rse.2017.10.027. ISSN 0034-4257.

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Official URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0034425717304893#!

Abstract

Topographical information is of fundamental interest for a wide range of disciplines including glaciology, agriculture, communication network planning, or hazard management. In volcanology, elevation data are of particular importance when assessing material flows throughout a volcanic system. To obtain accurate estimates of time-varying topography in volcanic active regions, high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) are required. To monitor and evaluate topographical changes and especially volumetric gains and losses during the 2014-2015 Bárðarbunga eruption, Iceland, multi-temporal TanDEM-X DEM sequences were evaluated. The 2014-2015 volcanic eruption was associated with the rare event of a caldera collapse, visible on the surface of the Vatnajökull glacier, as well as major lava effusion in the Holuhraun plain. Before investigating topographical change at the two study areas, the TanDEM-X DEMs were analysed for absolute and relative height errors resulting from the radar system parameters, the SAR processing or the local environment. The uncertainty investigation determined that acquisitions over the snow-covered Bárðarbunga caldera were primarily affected by microwave penetration into snow and DEMs over the Holuhraun lava field exhibited increased height errors due to active lava flows and dynamic outwash plain. The topographical analysis of the 2014-2015 Bárðarbunga eruption revealed a maximum vertical displacement of approximately -65 m and +43 m at the study area of the Bárðarbunga caldera and Holuhraun lava field respectively. With a total subsidence volume of -1.40 ± 0.13 km3 and a dense-rock equivalent (DRE) lava volume of +1.36 ± 0.07 km3, known uncertainties in volume were decreased by approximately 35% and 77% accordingly. Taking into account the calculation of rates, the temporal development of caldera collapse and lava effusion was found to exhibit a near-exponential decrease. The ratio between subsidence and DRE lava volume moreover indicated the coupling between piston collapse and magma drainage.

Item URL in elib:https://elib.dlr.de/114994/
Document Type:Article
Title:Geomorphometric analysis of the 2014-2015 Bárðarbunga volcanic eruption, Iceland
Authors:
AuthorsInstitution or Email of AuthorsAuthor's ORCID iD
Dirscherl, Mariel Christinaucl, department of geographyUNSPECIFIED
Rossi, Cristiancristian.rossi (at) dlr.deUNSPECIFIED
Date:28 January 2018
Journal or Publication Title:Remote Sensing of Environment
Refereed publication:Yes
Open Access:Yes
Gold Open Access:No
In SCOPUS:Yes
In ISI Web of Science:Yes
Volume:204
DOI :10.1016/j.rse.2017.10.027
Page Range:pp. 244-259
Publisher:Elsevier
ISSN:0034-4257
Status:Published
Keywords:Digital elevation model (DEM) DEM uncertainty TanDEM-X Volcanology Volumetric change Bárðarbunga Holuhraun
HGF - Research field:Aeronautics, Space and Transport
HGF - Program:Space
HGF - Program Themes:Earth Observation
DLR - Research area:Raumfahrt
DLR - Program:R EO - Earth Observation
DLR - Research theme (Project):R - Vorhaben hochauflösende Fernerkundungsverfahren (old)
Location: Oberpfaffenhofen
Institutes and Institutions:Remote Sensing Technology Institute > SAR Signal Processing
Deposited By: Minet, Christian
Deposited On:02 Nov 2017 11:55
Last Modified:31 Jul 2019 20:12

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