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Temporal monitoring of subglacial volcanoes with TanDEM-X — Application to the 2014–2015 eruption within the Bárðarbunga volcanic system, Iceland

Rossi, Cristian and Minet, Christian and Fritz, Thomas and Eineder, Michael and Bamler, Richard (2016) Temporal monitoring of subglacial volcanoes with TanDEM-X — Application to the 2014–2015 eruption within the Bárðarbunga volcanic system, Iceland. Remote Sensing of Environment, 181, pp. 186-197. Elsevier. DOI: 10.1016/j.rse.2016.04.003 ISSN 0034-4257

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Official URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0034425716301511

Abstract

On August 29, 2014, a lava eruption commenced in the Holuhraun plain, north-east of the Bárðarbunga caldera in Iceland. The eruption ended on February 27, 2015, thus lasting for a period of about 6 months. During these months the magma chamber below the caldera gradually deflated, feeding the eruption and causing the rare event of a slow caldera collapse. In this scenario, TanDEM-X remote sensing data are of particular interest. By producing medium-high resolution and accurate elevation models of the caldera, it is possible to evaluate volume losses and topographical changes to increase the knowledge about the ongoing activity. In particular, five TanDEM-X bistatic acquisitions have been commanded between August 01, 2014 and November 08, 2014, two of them before the volcanic eruption and three of them during the event. Additionally, to fully cover the volcanic activity, the lava field 48 km north-east of the caldera has also been monitored. In the first part of the paper, the expected elevation accuracy is studied on two levels. Absolute and relative height accuracies are analyzed by inspecting the X-band signal propagation into snow and by investigating the impact of the main geometrical system parameters and the local geomorphology. In the second part of the paper, the analysis is applied to the Bárðarbunga volcanic system, including a validation performed using complementary altimeter data. The main geophysical outcome is the accurate temporal height tracking of the entire caldera and the glacial volcanic system. The measured volume loss at the caldera location is about 1 billion cubic meters in two months with an average rate of subsidence of nearly 50 cm/day. These numbers confirm other independent sources and can be compared to lava volume measurements. Finally, the last segment of the dyke that propagated from the Bárðarbunga caldera to the Holuhraun lava field is mapped and a graben structure with a width of up to 1 km and a sinking of a few meters is reported.

Item URL in elib:https://elib.dlr.de/104144/
Document Type:Article
Title:Temporal monitoring of subglacial volcanoes with TanDEM-X — Application to the 2014–2015 eruption within the Bárðarbunga volcanic system, Iceland
Authors:
AuthorsInstitution or Email of AuthorsAuthors ORCID iD
Rossi, Cristiancristian.rossi (at) dlr.deUNSPECIFIED
Minet, Christianchristian.minet (at) dlr.deUNSPECIFIED
Fritz, Thomasthomas.fritz (at) dlr.deUNSPECIFIED
Eineder, Michaelmichael.eineder (at) dlr.deUNSPECIFIED
Bamler, Richardrichard.bamler (at) dlr.deUNSPECIFIED
Date:August 2016
Journal or Publication Title:Remote Sensing of Environment
Refereed publication:Yes
Open Access:Yes
Gold Open Access:No
In SCOPUS:Yes
In ISI Web of Science:Yes
Volume:181
DOI :10.1016/j.rse.2016.04.003
Page Range:pp. 186-197
Editors:
EditorsEmail
Hu, ChuanminUniversity of South Florida, St. Petersburg, Florida, USA
Chen, Jing M.University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Chuvieco, EmilioUniversidad de Alcalá, Alcalá de Henares, Madrid, Spain
Schaaf, CrystalUniversity of Massachusetts Boston, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
Publisher:Elsevier
ISSN:0034-4257
Status:Published
Keywords:TanDEM-X; DEM accuracy; Snow; Ice; Volcanoes; Bárðarbunga; Holuhraun
HGF - Research field:Aeronautics, Space and Transport
HGF - Program:Space
HGF - Program Themes:Earth Observation
DLR - Research area:Raumfahrt
DLR - Program:R EO - Erdbeobachtung
DLR - Research theme (Project):R - Projekt TanDEM-X
Location: Oberpfaffenhofen
Institutes and Institutions:Remote Sensing Technology Institute > SAR Signal Processing
Deposited By: Rossi, Cristian
Deposited On:04 May 2016 09:50
Last Modified:31 Jul 2019 20:01

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