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Space experiment “Cellular Responses to Radiation in Space (CellRad)”: Hardware and biological system tests

Hellweg, Christine E. and Dilruba, Shahana and Adrian, Astrid and Feles, Sebastian and Schmitz, Claudia and Berger, Thomas and Przybyla, Bartos and Briganti, Luca and Franz, Markus and Segerer, Jürgen and Spitta, Luis F. and Henschenmacher, Bernd and Konda, Bikash and Diegeler, Sebastian and Baumstark-Khan, Christa and Panitz, Corinna and Reitz, Günther (2015) Space experiment “Cellular Responses to Radiation in Space (CellRad)”: Hardware and biological system tests. Life Sciences in Space Research, 7, pp. 73-89. Elsevier. DOI: 10.1016/j.lssr.2015.10.003 ISSN 2214-5524

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Official URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lssr.2015.10.003

Abstract

One factor contributing to the high uncertainty in radiation risk assessment for long-term space missions is the insufficient knowledge about possible interactions of radiation with other spaceflight environmental factors. Such factors, e.g. microgravity, have to be considered as possibly additive or even synergistic factors in cancerogenesis. Regarding the effects of microgravity on signal transduction, it cannot be excluded that microgravity alters the cellular response to cosmic radiation, which comprises a complex network of signaling pathways. The purpose of the experiment “Cellular Responses to Radiation in Space” (CellRad, formerly CERASP) is to study the effects of combined exposure to microgravity, radiation and general space flight conditions on mammalian cells, in particular Human Embryonic Kidney (HEK) cells that are stably transfected with different plasmids allowing monitoring of proliferation and the Nuclear Factor κB (NF-κB) pathway by means of fluorescent proteins. The cells will be seeded on ground in multiwell plate units (MPUs), transported to the ISS, and irradiated by an artificial radiation source after an adaptation period at 0×g0×g and 1×g1×g. After different incubation periods, the cells will be fixed by pumping a formaldehyde solution into the MPUs. Ground control samples will be treated in the same way. For implementation of CellRad in the Biolab on the International Space Station (ISS), tests of the hardware and the biological systems were performed. The sequence of different steps in MPU fabrication (cutting, drilling, cleaning, growth surface coating, and sterilization) was optimized in order to reach full biocompatibility. Different coatings of the foil used as growth surface revealed that coating with 0.1 mg/ml poly-D-lysine supports cell attachment better than collagen type I. The tests of prototype hardware (Science Model) proved its full functionality for automated medium change, irradiation and fixation of cells. Exposure of HEK cells to the β-rays emitted by the radiation source dose-dependently decreased cell growth and increased NF-κB activation. The signal of the fluorescent proteins after formaldehyde fixation was stable for at least six months after fixation, allowing storage of the MPUs after fixation for several months before the transport back to Earth and evaluation of the fluorescence intensity. In conclusion, these tests show the feasibility of CellRad on the ISS with the currently available transport mechanisms.

Item URL in elib:https://elib.dlr.de/99068/
Document Type:Article
Title:Space experiment “Cellular Responses to Radiation in Space (CellRad)”: Hardware and biological system tests
Authors:
AuthorsInstitution or Email of AuthorsAuthors ORCID iD
Hellweg, Christine E.Division of Radiation Biology, Institute of Aerospace Medicine, German Aerospace Center (DLR), Linder Höhe, 51147 Köln, Germany; christine.hellweg (at) dlr.deUNSPECIFIED
Dilruba, ShahanaDivision of Radiation Biology, Institute of Aerospace Medicine, German Aerospace Center (DLR), Linder Höhe, 51147 Köln, Germany; Present address: Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Institute of Pharmacy, University of Bonn, Bonn, GermanyUNSPECIFIED
Adrian, AstridAirbus Defence and Space GmbH, TSPOE 3 / Payloads – Life Science, 88039 Friedrichshafen, GermanyUNSPECIFIED
Feles, SebastianDivision of Radiation Biology, Institute of Aerospace Medicine, German Aerospace Center (DLR), Linder Höhe, 51147 Köln, GermanyUNSPECIFIED
Schmitz, ClaudiaDivision of Radiation Biology, Institute of Aerospace Medicine, German Aerospace Center (DLR), Linder Höhe, 51147 Köln, GermanyUNSPECIFIED
Berger, ThomasDivision of Radiation Biology, Institute of Aerospace Medicine, German Aerospace Center (DLR), Linder Höhe, 51147 Köln, GermanyUNSPECIFIED
Przybyla, BartosDivision of Radiation Biology, Institute of Aerospace Medicine, German Aerospace Center (DLR), Linder Höhe, 51147 Köln, GermanyUNSPECIFIED
Briganti, LucaAirbus Defence and Space GmbH, TSPOE 3 / Payloads – Life Science, 88039 Friedrichshafen, GermanyUNSPECIFIED
Franz, MarkusAirbus Defence and Space GmbH, TSPOE 3 / Payloads – Life Science, 88039 Friedrichshafen, GermanyUNSPECIFIED
Segerer, JürgenAirbus Defence and Space GmbH, TSPOE 3 / Payloads – Life Science, 88039 Friedrichshafen, GermanyUNSPECIFIED
Spitta, Luis F.Division of Radiation Biology, Institute of Aerospace Medicine, German Aerospace Center (DLR), Linder Höhe, 51147 Köln, GermanyUNSPECIFIED
Henschenmacher, BerndDivision of Radiation Biology, Institute of Aerospace Medicine, German Aerospace Center (DLR), Linder Höhe, 51147 Köln, GermanyUNSPECIFIED
Konda, BikashDivision of Radiation Biology, Institute of Aerospace Medicine, German Aerospace Center (DLR), Linder Höhe, 51147 Köln, GermanyUNSPECIFIED
Diegeler, SebastianDivision of Radiation Biology, Institute of Aerospace Medicine, German Aerospace Center (DLR), Linder Höhe, 51147 Köln, GermanyUNSPECIFIED
Baumstark-Khan, ChristaDivision of Radiation Biology, Institute of Aerospace Medicine, German Aerospace Center (DLR), Linder Höhe, 51147 Köln, GermanyUNSPECIFIED
Panitz, CorinnaUniversitätsklinikum Aachen, Institut für Pharmakologie und Toxikologie, Wendlingweg 2, 52074 Aachen, GermanyUNSPECIFIED
Reitz, GüntherDivision of Radiation Biology, Institute of Aerospace Medicine, German Aerospace Center (DLR), Linder Höhe, 51147 Köln, GermanyUNSPECIFIED
Date:2015
Journal or Publication Title:Life Sciences in Space Research
Refereed publication:Yes
Open Access:No
Gold Open Access:No
In SCOPUS:Yes
In ISI Web of Science:No
Volume:7
DOI :10.1016/j.lssr.2015.10.003
Page Range:pp. 73-89
Publisher:Elsevier
ISSN:2214-5524
Status:Published
Keywords:Mammalian radiation response; Microgravity; Space experiment; Biocompatibility; Storage; Nuclear factor κB
HGF - Research field:Aeronautics, Space and Transport
HGF - Program:Space
HGF - Program Themes:Research under Space Conditions
DLR - Research area:Raumfahrt
DLR - Program:R FR - Forschung unter Weltraumbedingungen
DLR - Research theme (Project):R - Vorhaben Strahlenbiologie
Location: Köln-Porz
Institutes and Institutions:Institute of Aerospace Medicine > Radiation Biology
Deposited By: Kopp, Kerstin
Deposited On:04 Nov 2015 11:29
Last Modified:10 May 2016 23:33

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