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Insolation, Erosion, and Morphology of Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko

Keller, H. U. and Mottola, S. and Davidsson, B. and Schröder, S.E. and Skorov, Y. and Kührt, E. and Groussin, O. and Pajola, M. and Hviid, S. and Preusker, Frank and Scholten, F. and A’Hearn, M. F. and Sierks, H. and Barbieri, C. and Lamy, P. and Rodrigo, R. and Koschny, D. and Rickman, H. and Barucci, M. A. and Bertaux, J. L. and Bertini, I. and Cremonese, G. and Da Deppo, V. and Debei, S. and De Cecco, M. and Fornasier, S. and Fulle, M. and Gutiérrez, P. J. and Ip, W.-H. and Jorda, L. and Knollenberg, J. and Kramm, J. R. and Küppers, M. and Lara, L. M. and Lazzarin, M. and Lopez Moreno, J. J. and Marzari, F. and Michalik, H. and Naletto, G. and Sabau, L. and Thomas, N. and Vincent, J.-B. and Wenzel, K.-P. and Agarwal, J. and Güttler, C. and Oklay, N. and Tubiana, C. (2015) Insolation, Erosion, and Morphology of Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Astronomy and Astrophysics, 583, A34. EDP Sciences. DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201525964 ISSN 0004-6361

Full text not available from this repository.

Abstract

Context. The complex shape of 67P and its oblique rotation axis cause pronounced seasonal effects. Irradiation and hence activity vary strongly. Aims. We investigate the insolation of the cometary surface in order to predict the sublimation of water ice. The strongly varying erosion levels are correlated with the topography and morphology of the present cometary surface and its evolution. Methods. The insolation as a function of heliocentric distance and diurnal (spin dependent) variation is calculated using >105 facets of a detailed digital terrain model. Shading, but also illumination and thermal radiation by facets in the field of view of a specific facet are iteratively taken into account. We use a two layer model of a thin porous dust cover above an icy surface to calculate the water sublimation, presuming steady state and a uniform surface. A model, that includes the history of warming and cooling due to thermal inertia, is restricted to a much simpler shape model but allows us to test various distributions of active areas. Results. Sublimation from a dirty ice surface yields maximum erosion. A thin dust cover of 50 µm yields similar rates at perihelion. Only about 6% of the surface need to be active to match the observed water production rates at perihelion. A dust layer of 1 mm thickness suppresses the activity by a factor 4 to 5. Erosion on the south side can reach more than 10 m per orbit at active spots. The energy input to the concave neck area (Hapi) during northern summer is enhanced by about 50% due to self-illumination. Here surface temperatures reach maximum values along the foot of the Hathor wall. Integrated over the whole orbit this area receives the least energy input. Based on the detailed shape model the simulations identify “hot spots” in depressions and larger pits in good correlation with observed dust activity. ¾ of the total sublimation is produced while the sub-solar latitude is south, resulting in a distinct dichotomy in activity and morphology. Conclusions. The northern areas display a much rougher morphology than what is seen on Imhotep, an area at the equator that will be fully illuminated when 67P is closer to the Sun. Self-illumination in concave regions enhance the energy input and hence erosion. This explains the early activity observed at Hapi. Cliffs are more prone to erosion than horizontal often dust covered areas which leads to surface planation. Local activity can only persist if the forming cliff walls are eroding. Comet 67P has not only two lobes but also two distinct sides. Transport of material from the south to the north is probable. The morphology of the Imhotep plain should be typical for the terrains on the yet unseen south.

Item URL in elib:https://elib.dlr.de/97272/
Document Type:Article
Title:Insolation, Erosion, and Morphology of Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko
Authors:
AuthorsInstitution or Email of AuthorsAuthors ORCID iD
Keller, H. U.Institute of Planetary Research, DLR, Rutherfordstrasse 2, 12489 Berlin, Germany, keller (at) mps.mpg.deUNSPECIFIED
Mottola, S.stefano.mottola (at) dlr.deUNSPECIFIED
Davidsson, B.Institute of Planetary Research, DLR, Rutherfordstrasse 2, 12489 Berlin, GermanyUNSPECIFIED
Schröder, S.E.stefanus.schroeder (at) dlr.deUNSPECIFIED
Skorov, Y.Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg, 337077 Göttingen, GermanyUNSPECIFIED
Kührt, E.ekkehard.kuehrt (at) dlr.deUNSPECIFIED
Groussin, O.Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d’Astro- physique de Marseille) UMR 7326, 13388, Marseille, FranceUNSPECIFIED
Pajola, M.Center of Studies and Activities for Space (CISAS) “G. Colombo”, University of Padova, Via Venezia 15, 35131 Padova, ItalyUNSPECIFIED
Hviid, S.stubbe.hviid (at) dlr.deUNSPECIFIED
Preusker, Frankfrank.preusker (at) dlr.deUNSPECIFIED
Scholten, F.frank.scholten (at) dlr.deUNSPECIFIED
A’Hearn, M. F.Department for Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-2421, USAUNSPECIFIED
Sierks, H.Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg, 337077 Göttingen, GermanyUNSPECIFIED
Barbieri, C.University of Padova, Department of Physics and Astronomy, vicolo dell’Osservatorio 3, 35122, Padova, ItalyUNSPECIFIED
Lamy, P.Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d’Astro- physique de Marseille) UMR 7326, 13388, Marseille, FranceUNSPECIFIED
Rodrigo, R.International Space Science Institute, Hallerstraße 6, 3012 Bern, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
Koschny, D.Research and Scientific Support Department, European Space Agency, 2201 Noordwijk, The NetherlandsUNSPECIFIED
Rickman, H.Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, 75120 Uppsala, SwedenUNSPECIFIED
Barucci, M. A.LESIA, Obs. de Paris, CNRS, Univ Paris 06, Univ. Paris-Diderot, 5 Place J. Janssen, 92195 Meudon, FranceUNSPECIFIED
Bertaux, J. L.LATMOS, CNRS/UVSQ/IPSL, 11 Boulevard d’Alembert, 78280 Guyancourt, FranceUNSPECIFIED
Bertini, I.Center of Studies and Activities for Space (CISAS) “G. Colombo”, University of Padova, Via Venezia 15, 35131 Padova, ItalyUNSPECIFIED
Cremonese, G.University of Padova, Department of Physics and Astronomy, vicolo dell’Osservatorio 3, 35122, Padova, ItalyUNSPECIFIED
Da Deppo, V.CNR–IFN UOS Padova LUXOR, Via Trasea 7, 35131 Padova, ItalyUNSPECIFIED
Debei, S.Department of Mechanical Engineering – University of Padova, Via Venezia 1, 35131 Padova, ItalyUNSPECIFIED
De Cecco, M.UNITN, Università di Trento, Via Mesiano, 77, 38100 Trento, ItalyUNSPECIFIED
Fornasier, S.LESIA, Obs. de Paris, CNRS, Univ Paris 06, Univ. Paris-Diderot, 5 Place J. Janssen, 92195 Meudon, FranceUNSPECIFIED
Fulle, M.INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, via Tiepolo 11, 34143 Trieste, ItalyUNSPECIFIED
Gutiérrez, P. J.Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía – CSIC, 18080 Granada, SpainUNSPECIFIED
Ip, W.-H.Institute for Space Science, National Central University, 32054 Chung-Li, TaiwanUNSPECIFIED
Jorda, L.Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d’Astro- physique de Marseille) UMR 7326, 13388, Marseille, FranceUNSPECIFIED
Knollenberg, J.joerg.knollenberg (at) dlr.deUNSPECIFIED
Kramm, J. R.Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg, 337077 Göttingen, GermanyUNSPECIFIED
Küppers, M.ESA/ESAC, PO Box 78, 28691 Villanueva de la Cañada, SpainUNSPECIFIED
Lara, L. M.Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía – CSIC, 18080 Granada, SpainUNSPECIFIED
Lazzarin, M.University of Padova, Department of Physics and Astronomy, vicolo dell’Osservatorio 3, 35122, Padova, ItalyUNSPECIFIED
Lopez Moreno, J. J.Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía – CSIC, 18080 Granada, SpainUNSPECIFIED
Marzari, F.University of Padova, Department of Physics and Astronomy, vicolo dell’Osservatorio 3, 35122, Padova, ItalyUNSPECIFIED
Michalik, H.Institut für Datentechnik und Kommunikationsnetze, 38106 Braunschweig, GermanyUNSPECIFIED
Naletto, G.Department of Information Engineering - University of Padova, Via Gradenigo 6, 35131 Padova, ItalyUNSPECIFIED
Sabau, L.Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial, 28850 Torrejón de Ardoz, SpainUNSPECIFIED
Thomas, N.Physikalisches Institut, Sidlerstrasse 5, University of Bern, CH-3012 Bern, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
Vincent, J.-B.Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg, 337077 Göttingen, GermanyUNSPECIFIED
Wenzel, K.-P.Research and Scientific Support Department, European Space Agency, 2201 Noordwijk, The NetherlandsUNSPECIFIED
Agarwal, J.Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg, 337077 Göttingen, GermanyUNSPECIFIED
Güttler, C.Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg, 337077 Göttingen, GermanyUNSPECIFIED
Oklay, N.Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg, 337077 Göttingen, GermanyUNSPECIFIED
Tubiana, C.Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg, 337077 Göttingen, GermanyUNSPECIFIED
Date:2015
Journal or Publication Title:Astronomy and Astrophysics
Refereed publication:Yes
Open Access:No
Gold Open Access:No
In SCOPUS:Yes
In ISI Web of Science:Yes
Volume:583
DOI :10.1051/0004-6361/201525964
Page Range:A34
Publisher:EDP Sciences
ISSN:0004-6361
Status:Published
Keywords:comets, comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, Space vehicles, Rosetta, numerical
HGF - Research field:Aeronautics, Space and Transport
HGF - Program:Space
HGF - Program Themes:Space Science and Exploration
DLR - Research area:Raumfahrt
DLR - Program:R EW - Erforschung des Weltraums
DLR - Research theme (Project):R - Projekt ROSETTA Instrumente
Location: Berlin-Adlershof
Institutes and Institutions:Institute of Planetary Research > Asteroids and Comets
Institute of Planetary Research > Planetary Geodesy
Institute of Planetary Research > Planetary Geology
Deposited By: Bründl, Tara-Marie
Deposited On:08 Dec 2015 13:29
Last Modified:08 Mar 2018 18:54

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