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Gravitational slopes, geomorphology and material strengths of the nucleus of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko from OSIRIS observations

Groussin, O. and Jorda, L. and Auger, A.-T. and Kührt, E. and Gaskell, R. and Capanna, C. and Scholten, F. and Preusker, Frank and Lamy, P. and Hviid, S. and Knollenberg, J. and Keller, U. and Hüttig, C. and Sierks, H. and Barbieri, C. and Rodrigo, R. and Koschny, D. and Rickman, H. and A’Hearn, M. F. and Agarwal, J. and Barucci, M. A. and Bertaux, J.-L. and Bertini, I. and Boudreault, S. and Cremonese, G. and Da Deppo, V. and Davidsson, B. and Debei, S. and De Cecco, M. and El-Maarry, M. R. and Fornasier, S. and Fulle, M. and Gutiérrez, P. J. and Güttler, C. and Ip, W.-H. and Kramm, J.-R. and Küppers, M. and Lazzarin, M. and Lara, L. M. and Lopez Moreno, J. J. and Marchi, S. and Marzari, F. and Massironi, M. and Michalik, H. and Naletto, G. and Oklay, N. and Pommerol, A. and Pajola, M. and Thomas, N. and Toth, I. and Tubiana, C. and Vincent, J.-B. (2015) Gravitational slopes, geomorphology and material strengths of the nucleus of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko from OSIRIS observations. Astronomy & Astrophysics, 583, A32. EDP Sciences. DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201526379 ISSN 0004-6361

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Abstract

Aims. We study the link between gravitational slopes and surface morphology on the nucleus of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko and provide constraints on the mechanical properties of the cometary material (tensile, shear and compressive strengths). Methods. We computed the gravitational slopes for five regions on the nucleus, representative of the different morphologies observed on the surface (Imhotep, Ash, Seth, Hathor and Agilkia), using two shape models computed from OSIRIS images by the stereo-photoclinometry (SPC) and stereo-photogrammetry (SPG) techniques. We estimated the tensile strength, shear strength and compressive strength using different surface morphologies (overhangs, collapsed structures, boulders, cliffs, Philae’s footprint) and mechanical considerations. Results. The different regions show a similar general pattern in terms of relationship between gravitational slopes and terrain morphology: i) low slopes terrains (0 – 20°) are covered by a fine material and contain a few large (>10 m) and isolated boulders, ii) intermediate slope terrains (20 – 45°) are mainly fallen consolidated materials and debris fields, with numerous intermediate size boulders from <1 m to 10 m for the majority of them and iii) high slope terrains (45 – 90°) are cliffs exposing a consolidated material and do not show boulders or fine materials. The best range for the tensile strength of overhangs is 3 – 15 Pa (upper limit of 150 Pa), 4 – 30 Pa for the shear strength of fine surface materials and boulders and 30 – 150 Pa for the compressive strength of overhangs (upper limit of 1500 Pa). The strength-to-gravity ratio is similar for 67P and weak rocks on Earth. Due to the low compressive strength, the interior of the nucleus may have been compressed sufficiently to initiate diagenesis, which could have contributed to the formation of layers. Our value for the tensile strength is comparable to that of dust aggregates formed by gravitational instability (Skorov & Blum 2012) and tends to favour a formation of comets by pebble accretion in a region of higher concentration of particles like vortices (e.g., Johansen et al. 2014).

Item URL in elib:https://elib.dlr.de/97241/
Document Type:Article
Title:Gravitational slopes, geomorphology and material strengths of the nucleus of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko from OSIRIS observations
Authors:
AuthorsInstitution or Email of AuthorsAuthors ORCID iD
Groussin, O.Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d’Astrophysique de Marseille) UMR 7326, 13388, Marseille, France, e-mail: olivier.groussin (at) lam.frUNSPECIFIED
Jorda, L.Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d’Astrophysique de Marseille) UMR 7326, 13388, Marseille, FranceUNSPECIFIED
Auger, A.-T.Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d’Astrophysique de Marseille) UMR 7326, 13388, Marseille, FranceUNSPECIFIED
Kührt, E.ekkehard.kuehrt (at) dlr.deUNSPECIFIED
Gaskell, R.Planetary Science Institute, Tucson (AZ), USAUNSPECIFIED
Capanna, C.Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d’Astrophysique de Marseille) UMR 7326, 13388, Marseille, FranceUNSPECIFIED
Scholten, F.frank.scholten (at) dlr.deUNSPECIFIED
Preusker, Frankfrank.preusker (at) dlr.deUNSPECIFIED
Lamy, P.Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d’Astrophysique de Marseille) UMR 7326, 13388, Marseille, FranceUNSPECIFIED
Hviid, S.stubbe.hviid (at) dlr.deUNSPECIFIED
Knollenberg, J.joerg.knollenberg (at) dlr.deUNSPECIFIED
Keller, U.Institute of Planetary Research, DLR, Rutherfordstrasse 2, 12489, Berlin, GermanyUNSPECIFIED
Hüttig, C.christian.huettig (at) dlr.deUNSPECIFIED
Sierks, H.Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, 37077 Göttingen, GermanyUNSPECIFIED
Barbieri, C.Department of Physics and Astronomy, Padova University, Vicolo dell’Osservatorio 3, 35122, Padova, ItalyUNSPECIFIED
Rodrigo, R.Centro de Astrobiologia (INTA-CSIC), 28691 Villanueva de la Canada, Madrid, SpainUNSPECIFIED
Koschny, D.Scientific Support Office, European Space Agency, 2201, Noordwijk, The NetherlandsUNSPECIFIED
Rickman, H.Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, 75120, Uppsala, SwedenUNSPECIFIED
A’Hearn, M. F.Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, 20742-2421, USAUNSPECIFIED
Agarwal, J.Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, 37077 Göttingen, GermanyUNSPECIFIED
Barucci, M. A.LESIA, Obs. de Paris, CNRS, Univ Paris 06, Univ. Paris-Diderot, 5 place J. Janssen, 92195 Meudon, FranceUNSPECIFIED
Bertaux, J.-L.LATMOS, CNRS/UVSQ/IPSL, 11 boulevard d’Alembert, 78280, Guyancourt, FranceUNSPECIFIED
Bertini, I.Centro di Ateneo di Studi ed Attività Spaziali, "Giuseppe Colombo" (CISAS), University of Padova, via Venezia 15, 35131 Padova, ItalyUNSPECIFIED
Boudreault, S.Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, 37077 Göttingen, GermanyUNSPECIFIED
Cremonese, G.Department of Mech. Engineering University of Padova, via Venezia 1, 35131 Padova, ItalyUNSPECIFIED
Da Deppo, V.CNR-IFN UOS Padova LUXOR, via Trasea 7, 35131 Padova, ItalyUNSPECIFIED
Davidsson, B.Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, 75120, Uppsala, SwedenUNSPECIFIED
Debei, S.Department of Mech. Engineering University of Padova, via Venezia 1, 35131 Padova, ItalyUNSPECIFIED
De Cecco, M.UNITN, Universit di Trento, via Mesiano, 77, 38100 Trento, ItalyUNSPECIFIED
El-Maarry, M. R.Physikalisches Institut, Sidlerstr. 5, University of Bern, CH-3012 Bern, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
Fornasier, S.LESIA, Obs. de Paris, CNRS, Univ Paris 06, Univ. Paris-Diderot, 5 place J. Janssen, 92195 Meudon, FranceUNSPECIFIED
Fulle, M.INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico, Via Tiepolo 11, 34143, Trieste, ItalyUNSPECIFIED
Gutiérrez, P. J.Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucía (CSIC), Glorieta de la As- tronomía s/n, 18008 Granada, SpainUNSPECIFIED
Güttler, C.Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, 37077 Göttingen, GermanyUNSPECIFIED
Ip, W.-H.Institute for Space Science, Nat. Central Univ., 300 Chung Da Rd., 32054, Chung-Li, TaiwanUNSPECIFIED
Kramm, J.-R.Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, 37077 Göttingen, GermanyUNSPECIFIED
Küppers, M.Operations Department, European Space Astronomy Centre/ESA,UNSPECIFIED
Lazzarin, M.Department of Physics and Astronomy, Padova University, Vicolo dell’Osservatorio 3, 35122, Padova, ItalyUNSPECIFIED
Lara, L. M.Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucía (CSIC), Glorieta de la As- tronomía s/n, 18008 Granada, SpainUNSPECIFIED
Lopez Moreno, J. J.Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucía (CSIC), Glorieta de la As- tronomía s/n, 18008 Granada, SpainUNSPECIFIED
Marchi, S.Southwest Research Institute, 1050 Walnut St., Boulder, CO 80302, USAUNSPECIFIED
Marzari, F.Department of Physics and Astronomy, Padova University, Vicolo dell’Osservatorio 3, 35122, Padova, ItalyUNSPECIFIED
Massironi, M.Centro di Ateneo di Studi ed Attività Spaziali, "Giuseppe Colombo" (CISAS), University of Padova, via Venezia 15, 35131 Padova, ItalyUNSPECIFIED
Michalik, H.Institut für Datentechnik und Kommunikationsnetze der TU Braun- schweig, Hans-Sommer-Str. 66, 38106 Braunschweig, GermanyUNSPECIFIED
Naletto, G.Centro di Ateneo di Studi ed Attività Spaziali, "Giuseppe Colombo" (CISAS), University of Padova, via Venezia 15, 35131 Padova, ItalyUNSPECIFIED
Oklay, N.Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, 37077 Göttingen, GermanyUNSPECIFIED
Pommerol, A.Physikalisches Institut, Sidlerstr. 5, University of Bern, CH-3012 Bern, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
Pajola, M.Centro di Ateneo di Studi ed Attività Spaziali, "Giuseppe Colombo" (CISAS), University of Padova, via Venezia 15, 35131 Padova, ItalyUNSPECIFIED
Thomas, N.Physikalisches Institut, Sidlerstr. 5, University of Bern, CH-3012 Bern, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
Toth, I.Konkoly Observatory, Budapest H-1525, P.O. Box 67, HungaryUNSPECIFIED
Tubiana, C.Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, 37077 Göttingen, GermanyUNSPECIFIED
Vincent, J.-B.Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, 37077 Göttingen, GermanyUNSPECIFIED
Date:2015
Journal or Publication Title:Astronomy & Astrophysics
Refereed publication:Yes
Open Access:No
Gold Open Access:No
In SCOPUS:Yes
In ISI Web of Science:Yes
Volume:583
DOI :10.1051/0004-6361/201526379
Page Range:A32
Publisher:EDP Sciences
ISSN:0004-6361
Status:Published
Keywords:67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, Comets, Accretion, accretion disks, data analysis
HGF - Research field:Aeronautics, Space and Transport
HGF - Program:Space
HGF - Program Themes:Space Science and Exploration
DLR - Research area:Raumfahrt
DLR - Program:R EW - Erforschung des Weltraums
DLR - Research theme (Project):R - Projekt ROSETTA Instrumente
Location: Berlin-Adlershof
Institutes and Institutions:Institute of Planetary Research > Asteroids and Comets
Institute of Planetary Research > Planetary Sensor Systems
Institute of Planetary Research > Planetary Geodesy
Deposited By: Bründl, Tara-Marie
Deposited On:08 Dec 2015 13:25
Last Modified:08 Mar 2018 18:22

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