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Characterization of the secondary neutron field produced during treatment of an anthropomorphic phantom with x-rays, protons and carbon ions

Tessa, C La and Berger, T and Kaderka, R and Schardt, D and Burmeister, S and Labrenz, J and Reitz, G and Durante, M (2014) Characterization of the secondary neutron field produced during treatment of an anthropomorphic phantom with x-rays, protons and carbon ions. Physics in Medicine and Biology, 59 (8), pp. 2111-2125. Institute of Physics (IOP) Publishing. DOI: 10.1088/0031-9155/59/8/2111 ISSN 0031-9155

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Official URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0031-9155/59/8/2111

Abstract

Short- and long-term side effects following the treatment of cancer with radiation are strongly related to the amount of dose deposited to the healthy tissue surrounding the tumor. The characterization of the radiation field outside the planned target volume is the first step for estimating health risks, such as developing a secondary radioinduced malignancy. In ion and high-energy photon treatments, the major contribution to the dose deposited in the far-out-of-field region is given by neutrons, which are produced by nuclear interaction of the primary radiation with the beam line components and the patient's body. Measurements of the secondary neutron field and its contribution to the absorbed dose and equivalent dose for different radiotherapy technologies are presented in this work. An anthropomorphic RANDO phantom was irradiated with a treatment plan designed for a simulated 5 × 2 × 5 cm³ cancer volume located in the center of the head. The experiment was repeated with 25 MV IMRT (intensity modulated radiation therapy) photons and charged particles (protons and carbon ions) delivered with both passive modulation and spot scanning in different facilities. The measurements were performed with active (silicon-scintillation) and passive (bubble, thermoluminescence 6LiF:Mg, Ti (TLD-600) and 7LiF:Mg, Ti (TLD-700)) detectors to investigate the production of neutral particles both inside and outside the phantom. These techniques provided the whole energy spectrum (E ≤ 20 MeV) and corresponding absorbed dose and dose equivalent of photo neutrons produced by x-rays, the fluence of thermal neutrons for all irradiation types and the absorbed dose deposited by neutrons with 0.8 < E < 10 MeV during the treatment with scanned carbon ions. The highest yield of thermal neutrons is observed for photons and, among ions, for passively modulated beams. For the treatment with high-energy x-rays, the contribution of secondary neutrons to the dose equivalent is of the same order of magnitude as the primary radiation. In carbon therapy delivered with raster scanning, the absorbed dose deposited by neutrons in the energy region between 0.8 and 10 MeV is almost two orders of magnitude lower than charged fragments. We conclude that, within the energy range explored in this experimental work, the out-of-field dose from secondary neutrons is lowest for ions delivered by scanning, followed by passive modulation, and finally by high-energy IMRT photons.

Item URL in elib:https://elib.dlr.de/88726/
Document Type:Article
Title:Characterization of the secondary neutron field produced during treatment of an anthropomorphic phantom with x-rays, protons and carbon ions
Authors:
AuthorsInstitution or Email of AuthorsAuthors ORCID iD
Tessa, C LaHelmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Planckstrasse 1, D-64291 Darmstadt, Germany; c.latessa (at) gsi.deUNSPECIFIED
Berger, TGerman Aerospace Center, Institute of Aerospace Medicine, Linder Hoehe, D-51147 Cologne, GermanyUNSPECIFIED
Kaderka, RHelmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Planckstrasse 1, D-64291 Darmstadt, GermanyUNSPECIFIED
Schardt, DHelmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Planckstrasse 1, D-64291 Darmstadt, GermanyUNSPECIFIED
Burmeister, SChristian Albrechts Universität Kiel, Kiel, GermanyUNSPECIFIED
Labrenz, JChristian Albrechts Universität Kiel, Kiel, GermanyUNSPECIFIED
Reitz, GGerman Aerospace Center, Institute of Aerospace Medicine, Linder Hoehe, D-51147 Cologne, GermanyUNSPECIFIED
Durante, MHelmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Planckstrasse 1, D-64291 Darmstadt, Germany and Technische Universität Darmstadt, Darmstadt, GermanyUNSPECIFIED
Date:2014
Journal or Publication Title:Physics in Medicine and Biology
Refereed publication:Yes
Open Access:No
Gold Open Access:No
In SCOPUS:Yes
In ISI Web of Science:Yes
Volume:59
DOI :10.1088/0031-9155/59/8/2111
Page Range:pp. 2111-2125
Publisher:Institute of Physics (IOP) Publishing
ISSN:0031-9155
Status:Published
Keywords:radiotherapy, x-rays, particle therapy, neutron, out-of-field dose
HGF - Research field:Aeronautics, Space and Transport
HGF - Program:Space
HGF - Program Themes:Research under Space Conditions
DLR - Research area:Raumfahrt
DLR - Program:R FR - Forschung unter Weltraumbedingungen
DLR - Research theme (Project):R - Vorhaben Strahlenbiologie
Location: Köln-Porz
Institutes and Institutions:Institute of Aerospace Medicine > Radiation Biology
Deposited By: Kopp, Kerstin
Deposited On:16 Apr 2014 12:20
Last Modified:08 Mar 2018 18:36

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