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Effects of age and starting age upon side asymmetry in the arms of veteran tennis players: a cross-sectional study

Ireland, Alex and Maden-Wilkinson, T. M. and Ganse, Bergita and Degens, Hans and Rittweger, Jörn (2014) Effects of age and starting age upon side asymmetry in the arms of veteran tennis players: a cross-sectional study. Osteoporosis International, 25, pp. 1389-1400. Springer. DOI: 10.1007/s00198-014-2617-5 ISSN 0937-941X

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Abstract

Summary While tennis playing results in large bone strength benefits in the racquet arm of young players, the effects of tennis playing in old players have not been investigated. Large side asymmetries in bone strength were found in veteran players, which were more pronounced in men, younger players and childhood starters. Introduction Regular tennis results in large racquet arm bone and muscle strength advantages; however, these effects have not been studied in old players. The non-racquet arm can act as an internal control for the exercising racquet arm without confounding factors, e.g. genotype. Therefore, veteran tennis player side asymmetries were examined to investigate age, sex and starting age effects on bone exercise benefits. Methods Peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) scans were taken at the radius, ulna and humerus mid-shaft and distal radius in both arms of 88 tennis players (51males, 37 females;mean age 63.8±11.8 years). Thirty-two players began playing in adulthood, thereby termed ‘old starters’; players were otherwise termed ‘young starters’. Results Muscle size and bone strength were greater in the racquet arm; notably, distal radius bone mineral content (BMC) was 13±10 % higher and humeral bone area 23± 12 % larger (both P<0.001). Epiphyseal BMC asymmetry was not affected by age (P=0.863) or sex (P=0.954), but diaphyseal asymmetries were less pronounced in older players and women, particularly in the humerus where BMC, area and moment of resistance asymmetries were 28–34 % less in women (P<0.01). Bone area and periosteal circumference asymmetries were smaller in old starters (all P<0.01); most notably, no distal radius asymmetry was found in this group (0.4±3.4 %). Conclusions Tennis participation is associated with large side asymmetries in muscle and bone strength in old age. Larger relative side asymmetries in men, younger players and young starters suggest a greater potential for exercise benefits to bone in these groups.

Item URL in elib:https://elib.dlr.de/88634/
Document Type:Article
Title:Effects of age and starting age upon side asymmetry in the arms of veteran tennis players: a cross-sectional study
Authors:
AuthorsInstitution or Email of AuthorsAuthors ORCID iD
Ireland, AlexManchester Metropolitan UniversityUNSPECIFIED
Maden-Wilkinson, T. M.Manchester Metropolitan UniversityUNSPECIFIED
Ganse, Bergitabergita.ganse (at) dlr.deUNSPECIFIED
Degens, HansManchester Metropolitan UniversityUNSPECIFIED
Rittweger, Jörnjoern.rittweger (at) dlr.deUNSPECIFIED
Date:15 February 2014
Journal or Publication Title:Osteoporosis International
Refereed publication:Yes
Open Access:Yes
Gold Open Access:No
In SCOPUS:Yes
In ISI Web of Science:Yes
Volume:25
DOI :10.1007/s00198-014-2617-5
Page Range:pp. 1389-1400
Publisher:Springer
ISSN:0937-941X
Status:Published
Keywords:Ageing; BMD; Bone; Exercise; Muscle; pQCT
HGF - Research field:Aeronautics, Space and Transport
HGF - Program:Space
HGF - Program Themes:Research under Space Conditions
DLR - Research area:Raumfahrt
DLR - Program:R FR - Forschung unter Weltraumbedingungen
DLR - Research theme (Project):R - Vorhaben Effects of Mikro-g und Hyper-g
Location: Köln-Porz
Institutes and Institutions:Institute of Aerospace Medicine > Space Physiology
Deposited By: Becker, Christine
Deposited On:27 Mar 2014 14:27
Last Modified:06 Sep 2019 15:20

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