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Lava flow rheology: A comparison of morphological and petrological methods

Chevrel, M.O. and Platz, T. and Hauber, E. and Baratoux, D. and Lavallée, Y. and Dingwell, D.B (2013) Lava flow rheology: A comparison of morphological and petrological methods. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 384, pp. 109-120. Elsevier. DOI: 10.1016/j.epsl.2013.09.022 ISSN 0012-821X

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Official URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0012821X13005335

Abstract

In planetary sciences, the emplacement of lava flows is commonly modelled using a single rheological parameter (apparent viscosity or apparent yield strength) calculated from morphological dimensions using Jeffreys’ and Hulme’s equations. The rheological parameter is then typically further interpreted in terms of the nature and chemical composition of the lava (e.g., mafic or felsic). Without the possibility of direct sampling of the erupted material, the validity of this approach has remained largely untested. In modern volcanology, the complex rheological behaviour of lavas is measured and modelled as a function of chemical composition of the liquid phase, fractions of crystals and bubbles, temperature and strain rate. Here, we test the planetary approach using a terrestrial basaltic lava flow from the Western Volcanic Zone in Iceland. The geometric parameters required to employ Jeffreys’ and Hulme’s equations are accurately estimated from high-resolution HRSC-AX Digital Elevation Models. Samples collected along the lava flow are used to constrain a detailed model of the transient rheology as a function of cooling, crystallisation, and compositional evolution of the residual melt during emplacement. We observe that the viscosity derived from the morphology corresponds to the value estimated when significant crystallisation inhibits viscous deformation, causing the flow to halt. As a consequence, the inferred viscosity is highly dependent on the details of the crystallisation sequence and crystal shapes, and as such, is neither uniquely nor simply related to the bulk chemical composition of the erupted material. This conclusion, drawn for a mafic lava flow where crystallisation is the primary process responsible for the increase of the viscosity during emplacement, should apply to most of martian, lunar, or mercurian volcanic landforms, which are dominated by basaltic compositions. However, it may not apply to felsic lavas where vitrification resulting from degassing and cooling may ultimately cause lava flows to halt.

Item URL in elib:https://elib.dlr.de/87250/
Document Type:Article
Title:Lava flow rheology: A comparison of morphological and petrological methods
Authors:
AuthorsInstitution or Email of AuthorsAuthors ORCID iD
Chevrel, M.O.LMU MünchenUNSPECIFIED
Platz, T.Freie Universität, Institut für Geologische Wissenschaften, Berlin, GermanyUNSPECIFIED
Hauber, E.ernst.hauber (at) dlr.deUNSPECIFIED
Baratoux, D.Observatoire Midi-Pyrénées, Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planétologie, Toulouse, FranceUNSPECIFIED
Lavallée, Y.University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UKUNSPECIFIED
Dingwell, D.BLudwig Maximilians Universität München, Earth & Environmental Sciences, GermanyUNSPECIFIED
Date:2013
Journal or Publication Title:Earth and Planetary Science Letters
Refereed publication:Yes
Open Access:Yes
Gold Open Access:No
In SCOPUS:Yes
In ISI Web of Science:Yes
Volume:384
DOI :10.1016/j.epsl.2013.09.022
Page Range:pp. 109-120
Publisher:Elsevier
ISSN:0012-821X
Status:Published
Keywords:Mars, volcanism, lava, viscosity, rheology, HRSC, melting, modeling, crystallization, terrestrial analogues, Iceland
HGF - Research field:Aeronautics, Space and Transport
HGF - Program:Space
HGF - Program Themes:Space Science and Exploration
DLR - Research area:Raumfahrt
DLR - Program:R EW - Erforschung des Weltraums
DLR - Research theme (Project):R - Projekt MARS-EXPRESS / HRSC
Location: Berlin-Adlershof
Institutes and Institutions:Institute of Planetary Research > Planetary Geology
Deposited By: Hauber, Ernst
Deposited On:07 Jan 2014 15:28
Last Modified:31 Jul 2019 19:44

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