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AFM as an analysis tool for high-capacity sulfur cathodes for Li–S batteries

Hiesgen, Renate and Sörgel, Seniz and Costa, Rémi and Carlé, Linus and Galm, Ines and Cañas, Natalia A. and Pascucci, Brigitta and Friedrich, K. Andreas (2013) AFM as an analysis tool for high-capacity sulfur cathodes for Li–S batteries. Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology (4), pp. 611-624. Beilstein-Institut. DOI: 10.3762/bjnano.4.68 ISSN 2190-4286

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Official URL: http://www.beilstein-institut.de/journals/nanotechnologie/

Abstract

In this work, material-sensitive atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques were used to analyse the cathodes of lithium–sulfur batteries. A comparison of their nanoscale electrical, electrochemical, and morphological properties was performed with samples prepared by either suspension-spraying or doctor-blade coating with different binders. Morphological studies of the cathodes before and after the electrochemical tests were performed by using AFM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The cathodes that contained polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and were prepared by spray-coating exhibited a superior stability of the morphology and the electric network associated with the capacity and cycling stability of these batteries. A reduction of the conductive area determined by conductive AFM was found to correlate to the battery capacity loss for all cathodes. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements of Li2S exposed to ambient air showed that insulating Li2S hydrolyses to insulating LiOH. This validates the significance of electrical ex-situ AFM analysis after cycling. Conductive tapping mode AFM indicated the existence of large carbon-coated sulfur particles. Based on the analytical findings, the first results of an optimized cathode showed a much improved discharge capacity of 800 mA·g(sulfur)−1 after 43 cycles.

Item URL in elib:https://elib.dlr.de/84875/
Document Type:Article
Title:AFM as an analysis tool for high-capacity sulfur cathodes for Li–S batteries
Authors:
AuthorsInstitution or Email of AuthorsAuthors ORCID iD
Hiesgen, Renate renate.hiesgen (at) hs-esslingen.deUNSPECIFIED
Sörgel, Seniz seniz.sörgel (at) dlr.deUNSPECIFIED
Costa, Rémi remi.costa (at) dlr.deUNSPECIFIED
Carlé, Linuslinus.carle (at) dlr.deUNSPECIFIED
Galm, Ines ines.galm (at) hs-esslingen.deUNSPECIFIED
Cañas, Natalia A.natalia.canas (at) dlr.deUNSPECIFIED
Pascucci, Brigitta brigitta.psacucci (at) dlr.deUNSPECIFIED
Friedrich, K. Andreas andreas.friedrich (at) dlr.deUNSPECIFIED
Date:4 October 2013
Journal or Publication Title:Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
Refereed publication:Yes
Open Access:Yes
Gold Open Access:Yes
In SCOPUS:Yes
In ISI Web of Science:Yes
DOI :10.3762/bjnano.4.68
Page Range:pp. 611-624
Publisher:Beilstein-Institut
Series Name:"Advanced atomic force microscopy techniques II"
ISSN:2190-4286
Status:Published
Keywords:conductive AFM high capacity lithium-sulfur batteries material-sensitive AFM sulfur cathode
HGF - Research field:Energy
HGF - Program:Efficient Energy Conversion and Use (old)
HGF - Program Themes:Fuel Cells (old)
DLR - Research area:Energy
DLR - Program:E EV - Energy process technology
DLR - Research theme (Project):E - Elektrochemische Prozesse (old)
Location: Stuttgart
Institutes and Institutions:Institute of Engineering Thermodynamics > Electrochemical Energy Technology
Deposited By: Friedrich, Prof.Dr. Kaspar Andreas
Deposited On:29 Oct 2013 10:40
Last Modified:08 Mar 2018 18:32

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