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Upper Limb Muscle–Bone Asymmetries and Bone Adaptation in Elite Youth Tennis Players

Ireland, Alex and Maden-Wilkinson, Thomas and McPhee, Jamie and Cooke, Karl and Narici, Marco and Degens, Hans and Rittweger, Jörn (2013) Upper Limb Muscle–Bone Asymmetries and Bone Adaptation in Elite Youth Tennis Players. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 45 (9), pp. 1749-58. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Ltd.. DOI: DOI: 10.1249/MSS.0b013e31828f882f ISSN 0025-7990

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Abstract

Introduction: The study of tennis players allows the nonracket arm to act as an internal control for the exercising racket arm. In addition, the study of the upper limbs removes the influence of gravitational loading, allowing the examination of the influence of muscular force on bone adaptation. Methods: The role of muscular action on bone, strength parameters of the radius, ulna (both at 4% and 60% distal–proximal ulnar length), and humerus (at 35% distal–proximal humerus length) as well as muscle size in both arms of 50 elite junior tennis players (mean T SD age = 13.5 T 1.9 yr) were measured with peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT). Results: Strong relationships were found between muscle size and bone size in both arms (all correlations, P G 0.001, R2 = 0.73–0.86). However, the muscle–bone ratio was significantly lower (P G 0.001) in the upper arm on the racket side (compared with the contralateral arm). In addition, material eccentricity analysis revealed that bone strength in bending and torsion increased more than strength in compression as the moment arms for these actions (bone length and width, respectively) increased (in all cases, P 9 0.001, R2 = 0.06–0.7) with relationships being stronger in torsion than in bending. Large side differences were found in bone strength parameters and muscle size in all investigated sites, with differences in distal radius total BMC (+37% T 21%) and humerus cortical cross-sectional area (+40% T 12%) being most pronounced (both P G 0.001). Conclusions: These results support a strong influence of muscular action on bone adaptation; however, interarm muscle–bone asymmetries suggest factors other than local muscle size that determine bone strength. The results also suggest that torsional loads provide the greatest stress experienced by the bone during a tennis stroke.

Item URL in elib:https://elib.dlr.de/84640/
Document Type:Article
Title:Upper Limb Muscle–Bone Asymmetries and Bone Adaptation in Elite Youth Tennis Players
Authors:
AuthorsInstitution or Email of AuthorsAuthors ORCID iD
Ireland, AlexManchester Metropolitan UniversityUNSPECIFIED
Maden-Wilkinson, ThomasManchester MetropolitanUNSPECIFIED
McPhee, JamieManchester MetropolitanUNSPECIFIED
Cooke, KarlNational Tennis Centre, LondonUNSPECIFIED
Narici, MarcoManchester Metropolitan University, U.K.UNSPECIFIED
Degens, HansManchester Metropolitan UniversityUNSPECIFIED
Rittweger, Jörnjoern.rittweger (at) dlr.deUNSPECIFIED
Date:September 2013
Journal or Publication Title:Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Refereed publication:Yes
Open Access:Yes
Gold Open Access:No
In SCOPUS:Yes
In ISI Web of Science:No
Volume:45
DOI :DOI: 10.1249/MSS.0b013e31828f882f
Page Range:pp. 1749-58
Editors:
EditorsEmail
UNSPECIFIEDthe American College of Sports Medicine
Publisher:Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Ltd.
ISSN:0025-7990
Status:Published
Keywords:pQCT, EXERCISE, BMD, PHYSICAL ACTIVITY
HGF - Research field:Aeronautics, Space and Transport
HGF - Program:Space
HGF - Program Themes:Research under Space Conditions
DLR - Research area:Raumfahrt
DLR - Program:R FR - Forschung unter Weltraumbedingungen
DLR - Research theme (Project):Vorhaben Knocheneigenschaften
Location: Köln-Porz
Institutes and Institutions:Institute of Aerospace Medicine > Space Physiology
Deposited By: Becker, Christine
Deposited On:15 Nov 2013 12:43
Last Modified:06 Sep 2019 15:28

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