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"TNOs are Cool": A survey of the trans-Neptunian region. IX. Thermal properties of Kuiper belt objects and Centaurs from combined Herschel and Spitzer observations

Lellouch, E. and Santos-Sanz, P. and Lacerda, P. and Mommert, M. and Duffard, R. and Ortiz, J.-L. and Müller, T.G. and Fornasier, S. and Stansberry, J. and Kiss, C. and Vilenius, E. and Mueller, M. and Peixinho, N. and Moreno, R. and Groussin, O and Delsanti, A. and Harris, A.W. (2013) "TNOs are Cool": A survey of the trans-Neptunian region. IX. Thermal properties of Kuiper belt objects and Centaurs from combined Herschel and Spitzer observations. Astronomy & Astrophysics, 557 (A60), pp. 1-19. EDP Sciences. DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201322047 ISSN 0004-6361

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Official URL: http://www.aanda.org/index.php?volume=557&page=A60&option=com_article&access=linkmanager&edpsname=aa&lang=en


Aims. The goal of this work is to characterize the ensemble thermal properties of the Centaurs / trans-Neptunian population. Methods. Thermal flux measurements obtained with Herschel/PACS and Spitzer/MIPS provide size, albedo, and beaming factors for 85 objects (13 of which are presented here for the first time) by means of standard radiometric techniques. The measured beaming factors are influenced by the combination of surface roughness and thermal inertia effects. They are interpreted within a thermophysical model to constrain, in a statistical sense, the thermal inertia in the population and to study its dependence on several parameters. We use in particular a Monte-Carlo modeling approach to the data whereby synthetic datasets of beaming factors are created using random distributions of spin orientation and surface roughness. Results. Beaming factors η range from values <1 to ~2.5, but high η values (>2) are lacking at low heliocentric distances (rh < 30 AU). Beaming factors lower than 1 occur frequently (39% of the objects), indicating that surface roughness effects are important. We determine a mean thermal inertia for Centaurs/ TNO of Γ = (2.5 ± 0.5) J m-2 s−1/2 K-1, with evidence of a trend toward decreasing Γ with increasing heliocentric (by a factor ~2.5 from 8–25 AU to 41–53 AU). These thermal inertias are 2–3 orders of magnitude lower than expected for compact ices, and generally lower than on Saturn’s satellites or in the Pluto/Charon system. Most high-albedo objects are found to have unusually low thermal inertias. Our results suggest highly porous surfaces, in which the heat transfer is affected by radiative conductivity within pores and increases with depth in the subsurface.

Item URL in elib:https://elib.dlr.de/84311/
Document Type:Article
Title:"TNOs are Cool": A survey of the trans-Neptunian region. IX. Thermal properties of Kuiper belt objects and Centaurs from combined Herschel and Spitzer observations
AuthorsInstitution or Email of AuthorsAuthors ORCID iD
Lellouch, E.Observatoire de Paris-Meudon, FranceUNSPECIFIED
Santos-Sanz, P.IAA-CSIC, Granada, SpainUNSPECIFIED
Lacerda, P.University of Hawaii, USAUNSPECIFIED
Mommert, M.michael.mommert (at) dlr.deUNSPECIFIED
Duffard, R.IAA-CSIC, Granada, SpainUNSPECIFIED
Ortiz, J.-L.IAA-CSIC, Granada, SpainUNSPECIFIED
Müller, T.G.Max-Planck-Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik, GarchingUNSPECIFIED
Fornasier, S.Observatoire de Paris-Meudon, FranceUNSPECIFIED
Stansberry, J.University of Arizona, USAUNSPECIFIED
Kiss, C.Konkoly Observatory, HungaryUNSPECIFIED
Vilenius, E.MPI für Extraterrestrische Physik, GermanyUNSPECIFIED
Mueller, M.University of Arizona, USAUNSPECIFIED
Peixinho, N.Center for Geophysics of the University of CoimbraUNSPECIFIED
Moreno, R.Observatoire de Paris-Meudon, FranceUNSPECIFIED
Groussin, OLaboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille, FranceUNSPECIFIED
Delsanti, A.Observatoire de Paris-Meudon, FranceUNSPECIFIED
Harris, A.W.alan.harris (at) dlr.deUNSPECIFIED
Journal or Publication Title:Astronomy & Astrophysics
Refereed publication:Yes
Open Access:No
Gold Open Access:No
In ISI Web of Science:Yes
DOI :10.1051/0004-6361/201322047
Page Range:pp. 1-19
Publisher:EDP Sciences
Keywords:Kuiper belt, planetary systems, planets and satellites: surfaces, methods: observational, techniques: photometric
HGF - Research field:Aeronautics, Space and Transport
HGF - Program:Space
HGF - Program Themes:Space Science and Exploration
DLR - Research area:Raumfahrt
DLR - Program:R EW - Erforschung des Weltraums
DLR - Research theme (Project):R - Vorhaben Exploration des Sonnensystems
Location: Berlin-Adlershof
Institutes and Institutions:Institute of Planetary Research > Leitungsbereich PF
Deposited By: Harris, Prof. Alan
Deposited On:18 Sep 2013 10:24
Last Modified:23 Aug 2016 09:49

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