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Bone density and neuromuscular function in older competitive athletes depend on running distance

Gast, Ulf and Belavy, Daniel and Armbrecht, Gabriele and Kusy, Krzysztof and Lexy, H and Rawer, R and Rittweger, Jörn and Winwood, Keith and Zielinski, Jacek and Felsenberg, Dieter (2013) Bone density and neuromuscular function in older competitive athletes depend on running distance. Osteoporosis International, pp. 2033-2042. Springer. DOI: DOI 10.1007/s00198-012-2234-0 ISSN 0937-941X

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Abstract

Summary Individuals who are involved in explosive sport types, such as 100-m sprints and long jump, have greater bone density, leg muscle size, jumping height and grip strength than individuals involved in long-distance running. Introduction The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between different types of physical activity with bone, lean mass and neuromuscular performance in older individuals. Methods We examined short- (n050), middle- (n019) and long-distance (n0109) athletes at the 15th European Masters Championships in Poznań, Poland. Dual X-ray absorptiometry was used to measure areal bone mineral density (aBMD) and lean tissue mass. Maximal countermovement jump, multiple one-leg hopping and maximal grip force tests were performed. Results Short-distance athletes showed significantly higher aBMD at the legs, hip, lumbar spine and trunk compared to long-distance athletes (p≤0.0012). Countermovement jump performance, hop force, grip force, leg lean mass and arm lean mass were greater in short-distance athletes (p≤0.027). A similar pattern was seen in middle-distance athletes who typically showed higher aBMD and better neuromuscular performance than long-distance athletes, but lower in magnitude than short-distance athletes. In all athletes, aBMD was the same or higher than the expected age-adjusted population mean at the lumbar spine, hip and whole body. This effect was greater in the short- and middle-distance athletes. Conclusions The stepwise relation between short-,middle- and long-distance athletes on bone suggests that the higher-impact loading protocols in short-distance disciplines are more effective in promoting aBMD. The regional effect on bone, with the differences between the groups being most marked at loadbearing regions (legs, hip, spine and trunk) rather than nonload- bearing regions, is further evidence in support of the idea that bone adaptation to exercise is dependent upon the local loading environment, rather than as part of a systemic effect.

Item URL in elib:https://elib.dlr.de/83123/
Document Type:Article
Title:Bone density and neuromuscular function in older competitive athletes depend on running distance
Authors:
AuthorsInstitution or Email of AuthorsAuthors ORCID iD
Gast, UlfCharité University Medicine BerlinUNSPECIFIED
Belavy, DanielCharité University Medicine BerlinUNSPECIFIED
Armbrecht, GabrieleCharite - University Medicine BerlinUNSPECIFIED
Kusy, KrzysztofUniversity School of Physical Education in PoznańUNSPECIFIED
Lexy, HCharité University Medicine BerlinUNSPECIFIED
Rawer, RNovotec Medical PforzheimUNSPECIFIED
Rittweger, Jörnjoern.rittweger (at) dlr.deUNSPECIFIED
Winwood, KeithManchester Metropolitan UniversityUNSPECIFIED
Zielinski, JacekUniversity School of Physical Education, PoznanUNSPECIFIED
Felsenberg, DieterCharité - University Medicine BerlinUNSPECIFIED
Date:2013
Journal or Publication Title:Osteoporosis International
Refereed publication:Yes
Open Access:Yes
Gold Open Access:No
In SCOPUS:Yes
In ISI Web of Science:Yes
DOI :DOI 10.1007/s00198-012-2234-0
Page Range:pp. 2033-2042
Editors:
EditorsEmail
Lindsay, R.UNSPECIFIED
Kanis, J. A.UNSPECIFIED
Publisher:Springer
ISSN:0937-941X
Status:Published
Keywords:Bone . Elderly . Exercise . Mechanical loading . Muscle . Osteporosis
HGF - Research field:Aeronautics, Space and Transport
HGF - Program:Space
HGF - Program Themes:Research under Space Conditions
DLR - Research area:Raumfahrt
DLR - Program:R FR - Forschung unter Weltraumbedingungen
DLR - Research theme (Project):R - Vorhaben Systemphysiologie
Location: Köln-Porz
Institutes and Institutions:Institute of Aerospace Medicine > Space Physiology
Deposited By: Becker, Christine
Deposited On:27 Jun 2013 12:26
Last Modified:06 Sep 2019 15:20

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