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Long-Term Evolution of the Martian Crust-Mantle System

Grott, Matthias and Baratoux, D. and Hauber, Ernst and Sautterer, V. and Mustard, J. and Gasnault, O. and Ruff, S.W. and Karato, S.-I. and Debaille, V. and Knapmeyer, Martin and Sohl, Frank and van Hoolst, Tim and Breuer, Doris and Morschhauser, Achim and Toplis, M. J. (2012) Long-Term Evolution of the Martian Crust-Mantle System. Space Science Reviews, 172 (1), pp. 49-111. Springer. doi: 10.1007/s11214-012-9948-3.

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Official URL: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11214-012-9948-3


Lacking plate tectonics and crustal recycling, the long-term evolution of the crust-mantle system of Mars is driven by mantle convection, partial melting, and silicate differentiation. Volcanic landforms such as lava flows, shield volcanoes, volcanic cones, pyroclastic deposits, and dikes are observed on the martian surface, and while activity was widespread during the late Noachian and Hesperian, volcanism became more and more restricted to the Tharsis and Elysium provinces in the Amazonian period. Martian igneous rocks are predominantly basaltic in composition, and remote sensing data, in-situ data, and analysis of the SNC meteorites indicate that magma source regions were located at depths between 80 and 150 km, with degrees of partial melting ranging from 5 to 15 %. Furthermore, magma storage at depth appears to be of limited importance, and secular cooling rates of 30 to 40 K Gyr−1 were derived from surface chemistry for the Hesperian and Amazonian periods. These estimates are in general agreement with numerical models of the thermo-chemical evolution of Mars, which predict source region depths of 100 to 200 km, degrees of partial melting between 5 and 20 %, and secular cooling rates of 40 to 50 K Gyr−1. In addition, these model predictions largely agree with elastic lithosphere thickness estimates derived from gravity and topography data. Major unknowns related to the evolution of the crust-mantle system are the age of the shergottites, the planet’s initial bulk mantle water content, and its average crustal thickness. Analysis of the SNC meteorites, estimates of the elastic lithosphere thickness, as well as the fact that tidal dissipation takes place in the martian mantle indicate that rheologically significant amounts of water of a few tens of ppm are still present in the interior. However, the exact amount is controversial and estimates range from only a few to more than 200 ppm. Owing to the uncertain formation age of the shergottites it is unclear whether these water contents correspond to the ancient or present mantle. It therefore remains to be investigated whether petrologically significant amounts of water of more than 100 ppm are or have been present in the deep interior. Although models suggest that about 50 % of the incompatible species (H2O, K, Th, U) have been removed from the mantle, the amount of mantle differentiation remains uncertain because the average crustal thickness is merely constrained to within a factor of two.

Item URL in elib:https://elib.dlr.de/79982/
Document Type:Article
Title:Long-Term Evolution of the Martian Crust-Mantle System
AuthorsInstitution or Email of AuthorsAuthor's ORCID iD
Grott, Matthiasmatthias.grott (at) dlr.deUNSPECIFIED
Baratoux, D.Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planétologie, Université Toulouse III, Toulouse, France UNSPECIFIED
Hauber, Ernsternst.hauber (at) dlr.deUNSPECIFIED
Sautterer, V.Département Histoire de la Terre Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France UNSPECIFIED
Mustard, J.Department of Geological Sciences, Brown University, Providence, RI, 02912, USA UNSPECIFIED
Gasnault, O.Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planétologie, Université Toulouse III, Toulouse, France UNSPECIFIED
Ruff, S.W.School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA UNSPECIFIED
Karato, S.-I.Department of Geology and Geophysics, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA UNSPECIFIED
Debaille, V.Laboratoire G-Time, Université Libre de Bruxelles, 1050, Brussels, Belgium UNSPECIFIED
Knapmeyer, Martinmartin.knapmeyer (at) dlr.deUNSPECIFIED
Sohl, Frankfrank.sohl (at) dlr.deUNSPECIFIED
van Hoolst, TimRoyal Observatory of Belgium, Brussels, BelgiumUNSPECIFIED
Breuer, Dorisdoris.breuer (at) dlr.deUNSPECIFIED
Morschhauser, Achimachim.morschhauser (at) dlr.deUNSPECIFIED
Toplis, M. J.Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planétologie, Université Toulouse III, Toulouse, France UNSPECIFIED
Date:November 2012
Journal or Publication Title:Space Science Reviews
Refereed publication:Yes
Open Access:No
Gold Open Access:No
In ISI Web of Science:Yes
DOI :10.1007/s11214-012-9948-3
Page Range:pp. 49-111
EditorsEmailEditor's ORCID iD
Bloemen, HansSRON Netherlands Institute for Space ResearchUNSPECIFIED
Keywords:Mars, Volcanism, Geophysics, Geochemistry
HGF - Research field:Aeronautics, Space and Transport
HGF - Program:Space
HGF - Program Themes:Space Exploration
DLR - Research area:Raumfahrt
DLR - Program:R EW - Space Exploration
DLR - Research theme (Project):R - Exploration of the Solar System
Location: Berlin-Adlershof
Institutes and Institutions:Institute of Planetary Research > Planetary Physics
Institute of Planetary Research
Institute of Planetary Research > Planetary Geology
Deposited By: Rückriemen, Tina
Deposited On:18 Dec 2012 13:17
Last Modified:13 Sep 2017 13:31

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