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Kinetic bottlenecks to chemical exchange rates for deep-sea animals – Part 1: Oxygen

Hofmann, Andreas F. and Peltzer, Edward T. and Brewer, Peter G. (2012) Kinetic bottlenecks to chemical exchange rates for deep-sea animals – Part 1: Oxygen. Biogeosciences Discussion (BGD) (9), pp. 13817-13856. Copernicus Publications. DOI: doi:10.5194/bgd-9-13817-2012

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Official URL: http://www.biogeosciences-discuss.net/9/13817/2012/

Abstract

Ocean warming will reduce dissolved oxygen concentrations which can pose challenges to marine life. Oxygen limits are traditionally reported simply as a static concentration thresholds with no temperature, pressure or flow rate dependency. Here we treat the oceanic oxygen supply potential for heterotrophic consumption as a dynamic molecular exchange problem analogous to familiar gas exchange processes at the sea surface. A combination of the purely physico-chemical oceanic properties temperature, hydrostatic pressure, and oxygen concentration defines the ability of the ocean to supply oxygen to any given animal. This general oceanic oxygen supply potential is modulated by animal specific properties such as the diffusive boundary layer thickness to define and limit maximal oxygen supply rates. Here we combine all these properties into formal, mechanistic equations defining novel oceanic properties that subsume various relevant classical oceanographic parameters to better visualize, map, comprehend, and predict the impact of ocean deoxygenation on aerobic life. By explicitly including temperature and hydrostatic pressure into our quantities, various ocean regions ranging from the cold deep-sea to warm, coastal seas can be compared. We define purely physico-chemical quantities to describe the oceanic oxygen supply potential, but also quantities that contain organism-specific properties which in a most generalized way describe general concepts and dependencies. We apply these novel quantities to example oceanic profiles around the world and find that temperature and pressure dependencies of diffusion and partial pressure create zones of greatest physical constriction on oxygen supply typically at around 1000m depth, which coincides with oxygen concentration minimum zones. In these zones, which comprise the bulk of the world ocean, ocean warming and deoxygenation have a clear negative effect for aerobic life. In some shallow and warm waters the enhanced diffusion and higher partial pressure due to higher temperatures might slightly overcompensate for oxygen concentration decreases due to decreases in solubility.

Item URL in elib:https://elib.dlr.de/78400/
Document Type:Article
Title:Kinetic bottlenecks to chemical exchange rates for deep-sea animals – Part 1: Oxygen
Authors:
AuthorsInstitution or Email of AuthorsAuthors ORCID iD
Hofmann, Andreas F.DLR & MBARIUNSPECIFIED
Peltzer, Edward T.MBARI (Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute)UNSPECIFIED
Brewer, Peter G.MBARI (Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute)UNSPECIFIED
Date:11 October 2012
Journal or Publication Title:Biogeosciences Discussion (BGD)
Open Access:Yes
Gold Open Access:No
In SCOPUS:No
In ISI Web of Science:No
DOI :doi:10.5194/bgd-9-13817-2012
Page Range:pp. 13817-13856
Publisher:Copernicus Publications
Status:Published
Keywords:deep-sea gas exchange, kinetic limitation, diffusion, limits to marine life, hypoxia
HGF - Research field:Energy
HGF - Program:Efficient Energy Conversion and Use (old)
HGF - Program Themes:Fuel Cells (old)
DLR - Research area:Energy
DLR - Program:E EV - Energy process technology
DLR - Research theme (Project):E - Elektrochemische Prozesse (old)
Location: Stuttgart
Institutes and Institutions:Institute of Engineering Thermodynamics > Electrochemical Energy Technology
Deposited By: Hofmann, Andreas Felix
Deposited On:12 Nov 2012 15:59
Last Modified:31 Jul 2019 19:38

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