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Non-thermal water loss of the early Mars: 3D multi-ion hybrid simulations

Boesswetter, A. and Lammer, H. and Kulikov, Y. and Motschmann, U. and Simon, S. (2010) Non-thermal water loss of the early Mars: 3D multi-ion hybrid simulations. Planetary and Space Science, 58, pp. 2031-2043. Elsevier. doi: 10.1016/j.pss.2010.10.003.

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In this study we analyze the non-thermal loss rates of O+, O2+ and CO2+ ions over the last 4.5 billion years (Gyr) in the Martian history by using a 3D hybrid model. For this reason we derived the past solar wind conditions in detail. We take into account the intensified particle flux of the early Sun as well as an Martian atmosphere, which was exposed to a sun's extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation flux 4.5 Gyr ago that was 100 times stronger than today. Furthermore, we model the evolution of the interplanetary magnetic field by a Weber & Davis solar wind model. The ‘external’ influences of the Sun's radiation flux and solar wind flux lead to the formation of an ionospheric obstacle by photoionization, charge exchange and electron impact. For the early Martian conditions we could show that charge exchange was the dominant ionization mechanism. Several hybrid simulations for different stages in the evolution of the Martian atmosphere, at 1, 2, 5, 10, 30 and 100 EUV, were performed to analyze the non-thermal escape processes by ion pick-up, momentum transfer from the solar wind to the ionosphere and detached ionospheric plasma clouds. Our results show a non-linear evolution of the loss rates. Using mean solar wind parameters the simulations result in an oxygen loss equivalent to the depth of a global Martian ocean of about 2.6 m over the last 4.5 Gyr. The induced magnetic field strength could be increased up to about 2000 nT. A simulation run with high solar wind density results in an oxygen loss of a Martian ocean up to 205 m depth during 150 million years after the sun reached the zero age mean sequence (ZAMS).

Item URL in elib:https://elib.dlr.de/68496/
Document Type:Article
Title:Non-thermal water loss of the early Mars: 3D multi-ion hybrid simulations
AuthorsInstitution or Email of AuthorsAuthor's ORCID iDORCID Put Code
Boesswetter, A.Institute for Theoretical Physics, Technical Univerity of Braunschweig, Mendelssohnstr. 3, D-38106 Braunschweig, GermanyUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Lammer, H.Space Research Institute, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Schmiedlstr. 6, A-8042 Graz, AustriaUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Kulikov, Y.Polar Geophysical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Khalturina Str. 15, Murmansk 183010, Russian FederationUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Simon, S.Institute for Geophysics, University of Cologne, Zulpicher Strasse 49a, D-50923 Cologne, GermanyUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Journal or Publication Title:Planetary and Space Science
Refereed publication:Yes
Open Access:No
Gold Open Access:No
In ISI Web of Science:Yes
Page Range:pp. 2031-2043
Keywords:Mars; Solar wind interaction with unmagnetised bodies; Numerical simulation studies; Ionisation mechanism; Solar wind plasma
HGF - Research field:Aeronautics, Space and Transport (old)
HGF - Program:Space (old)
HGF - Program Themes:W EW - Erforschung des Weltraums
DLR - Research area:Space
DLR - Program:W EW - Erforschung des Weltraums
DLR - Research theme (Project):W - Vorhaben Planetenforschung (old)
Location: Berlin-Adlershof
Institutes and Institutions:Institute of Planetary Research
Deposited By: Brumm, Laura-Maria
Deposited On:20 Jan 2011 12:38
Last Modified:26 Mar 2013 13:26

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