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Astronaut’s Organ Doses Inferred from Measurements in a Human Phantom Outside the International Space Station

Reitz, Guenther and Berger, Thomas and Bilski, Pawel and Facius, Rainer and Hajek, Michael and Petrov, Vladislav and Puchalska, Monika and Zhou, Dazhuang and Bossler, Johannes and Akatov, Yury and Shurshakov, Vyacheslav and Olko, Pawel and Ptaszkiewicz, Marta and Bergmann, Robert and Fugger, Manfred and Vana, Norbert and Beaujean, Rudolf and Burmeister, Soenke and Bartlett, David and Hager, Luke and Pálfalvi, József and Szabó, Julianna and O’Sullivan, Denis and Kitamura, Hisashi and Uchihori, Yukio and Yasuda, Nakahiro and Nagamatsu, Aiko and Tawara, Hiroko and Benton, Eric and Gaza, Ramona and McKeever, Stephen and Sawakuchi, Gabriel and Yukihara, Eduardo and Cucinotta, Francis and Semones, Edward and Zapp, Neal and Miller, Jack and Dettmann, Jan (2009) Astronaut’s Organ Doses Inferred from Measurements in a Human Phantom Outside the International Space Station. Radiation Research, 171 (2), pp. 225-235. Radiation Research Society. doi: 10.1667/RR1559.1.

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Abstract

Space radiation hazards are recognized as a key concern for human space flight. For long-term interplanetary missions, they constitute a potentially limiting factor since current protection limits for low-Earth orbit missions may be approached or even exceeded. In such a situation, an accurate risk assessment requires knowledge of equivalent doses in critical radiosensitive organs rather than only skin doses or ambient doses from area monitoring. To achieve this, the MATROSHKA experiment uses a human phantom torso equipped with dedicated detector systems. We measured for the first time the doses from the diverse components of ionizing space radiation at the surface and at different locations inside the phantom positioned outside the International Space Station, thereby simulating an extravehicular activity of an astronaut. The relationships between the skin and organ absorbed doses obtained in such an exposure show a steep gradient between the doses in the uppermost layer of the skin and the deep organs with a ratio close to 20. This decrease due to the body self-shielding and a concomitant increase of the radiation quality factor by 1.7 highlight the complexities of an adequate dosimetry of space radiation. The depth-dose distributions established by MATROSHKA serve as benchmarks for space radiation models and radiation transport calculations that are needed for mission planning.

Item URL in elib:https://elib.dlr.de/57927/
Document Type:Article
Title:Astronaut’s Organ Doses Inferred from Measurements in a Human Phantom Outside the International Space Station
Authors:
AuthorsInstitution or Email of AuthorsAuthor's ORCID iD
Reitz, GuentherUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Berger, ThomasUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Bilski, PawelInstitute of Nuclear Physics, Krakow, PolandUNSPECIFIED
Facius, RainerUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Hajek, MichaelAtomic Institute of the Austrian Universities, Vienna, AustriaUNSPECIFIED
Petrov, VladislavInstitute for Biomedical Problems, Moscow, Russian FederationUNSPECIFIED
Puchalska, MonikaInstitute of Nuclear Physics, Krakow, PolandUNSPECIFIED
Zhou, DazhuangNASA Johnson Space Center, NASA,Houston, Texas; Universities Space Research Association, Houston, TexasUNSPECIFIED
Bossler, JohannesUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Akatov, YuryInstitute for Biomedical Problems, Moscow, Russian FederationUNSPECIFIED
Shurshakov, VyacheslavInstitute for Biomedical Problems, Moscow, Russian FederationUNSPECIFIED
Olko, PawelInstitute of Nuclear Physics, Krakow, PolandUNSPECIFIED
Ptaszkiewicz, MartaInstitute of Nuclear Physics, Krakow, PolandUNSPECIFIED
Bergmann, RobertAtomic Institute of the Austrian Universities, Vienna, AustriaUNSPECIFIED
Fugger, ManfredAtomic Institute of the Austrian Universities, Vienna, AustriaUNSPECIFIED
Vana, NorbertAtomic Institute of the Austrian Universities, Vienna, AustriaUNSPECIFIED
Beaujean, RudolfChristian-Albrechts Universität Kiel, Kiel, GermanyUNSPECIFIED
Burmeister, SoenkeChristian-Albrechts Universität Kiel, Kiel, GermanyUNSPECIFIED
Bartlett, DavidHealth Protection Agency, Chilton, United KingdomUNSPECIFIED
Hager, LukeHealth Protection Agency, Chilton, United KingdomUNSPECIFIED
Pálfalvi, JózsefAtomic Energy Research Institute, Budapest, HungaryUNSPECIFIED
Szabó, JuliannaAtomic Energy Research Institute, Budapest, HungaryUNSPECIFIED
O’Sullivan, DenisDublin Institute for Advanced Studies, Dublin, IrelandUNSPECIFIED
Kitamura, HisashiNational Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba, JapanUNSPECIFIED
Uchihori, YukioNational Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba, JapanUNSPECIFIED
Yasuda, NakahiroNational Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba, JapanUNSPECIFIED
Nagamatsu, AikoJapan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Tsukuba, JapanUNSPECIFIED
Tawara, HirokoHigh Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Tsukuba, JapanUNSPECIFIED
Benton, EricOklahoma State University, Stillwater, OklahomaUNSPECIFIED
Gaza, RamonaOklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma; NASA Johnson Space Center, NASA,Houston, TexasUNSPECIFIED
McKeever, StephenOklahoma State University, Stillwater, OklahomaUNSPECIFIED
Sawakuchi, GabrielOklahoma State University, Stillwater, OklahomaUNSPECIFIED
Yukihara, EduardoOklahoma State University, Stillwater, OklahomaUNSPECIFIED
Cucinotta, FrancisNASA Johnson Space Center, NASA,Houston, TexasUNSPECIFIED
Semones, EdwardNASA Johnson Space Center, NASA,Houston, TexasUNSPECIFIED
Zapp, NealNASA Johnson Space Center, NASA,Houston, TexasUNSPECIFIED
Miller, JackLawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CaliforniaUNSPECIFIED
Dettmann, JanEuropean Space Agency, Noordwijk, The NetherlandsUNSPECIFIED
Date:2009
Journal or Publication Title:Radiation Research
Refereed publication:Yes
Open Access:No
Gold Open Access:No
In SCOPUS:Yes
In ISI Web of Science:Yes
Volume:171
DOI:10.1667/RR1559.1
Page Range:pp. 225-235
Publisher:Radiation Research Society
Status:Published
Keywords:Radiation Research, Human Space Flight, Ionizing Space Radiation, Human Phantom, ISS
HGF - Research field:Aeronautics, Space and Transport (old)
HGF - Program:Space (old)
HGF - Program Themes:W FR - Forschung unter Weltraumbedingungen (old)
DLR - Research area:Space
DLR - Program:W FR - Forschung unter Weltraumbedingungen
DLR - Research theme (Project):W - Vorhaben Strahlenbiologie (old)
Location: Köln-Porz
Institutes and Institutions:Institute of Aerospace Medicine > Radiation Biology
Deposited By: Kopp, Kerstin
Deposited On:09 Feb 2009
Last Modified:04 Apr 2013 16:13

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