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Processing of VLF Amplitude Measurements: Deduction of a Quiet Time Seasonal Variation

Schneider, Helen and Wendt, Vivien and Banyś (geb. Wenzel), Daniela and Clilverd, Mark and Raita, Tero (2024) Processing of VLF Amplitude Measurements: Deduction of a Quiet Time Seasonal Variation. Radio Science, 59 (2). Wiley. doi: 10.1029/2023RS007834. ISSN 0048-6604.

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Official URL: https://agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1029/2023RS007834


The amplitude of Very Low Frequency (VLF) transmissions propagating from transmitter to receiver between the Earth's surface and the ionospheric D-region is a useful measurement to detect changes in the ionization within the D-region ranging from 60 to 90 km. The VLF signal amplitude is disturbed by geomagnetic, solar, and atmospheric phenomena. To be able to identify perturbations in the VLF signal amplitude, we determine its averaged seasonal variation under quiet solar and geomagnetic conditions. Here it is challenging, that long time series of the VLF signal amplitude show significant jumps and outliers, which are caused artificially by technical adjustments/maintenance work. This paper presents a new approach for processing long VLF data time series over multiple years resulting in level 2 data. The new level 2 data enables the consideration of time series with artificial jumps since the jumps are leveled. Moreover, the outliers are removed by a robust and systematic 2-step outlier filtering. The average seasonal and diurnal variation for different transmitter-receiver combinations can be computed with the new level 2 data by applying a composite analysis. A subsequently applied polynomial fit obtains the quiet time lines for daytime and nighttime, representing the typical seasonal variation under undisturbed conditions of the VLF signal amplitude for each considered link. The developed quiet time lines may serve as a tool to determine perturbations of the VLF signal amplitude with solar and geomagnetic as well as atmospheric origin. Also, they allow comparison of the VLF signal amplitude variation for different transmitter-receiver links.

Item URL in elib:https://elib.dlr.de/203361/
Document Type:Article
Title:Processing of VLF Amplitude Measurements: Deduction of a Quiet Time Seasonal Variation
AuthorsInstitution or Email of AuthorsAuthor's ORCID iDORCID Put Code
Wendt, VivienUNSPECIFIEDhttps://orcid.org/0000-0003-1806-4507UNSPECIFIED
Banyś (geb. Wenzel), DanielaUNSPECIFIEDhttps://orcid.org/0000-0001-6623-6612UNSPECIFIED
Clilverd, MarkBritish Antarctic Survey, High Cross, Cambridge, UKUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Raita, TeroUniversity of Oulu, Sodankylä Geophysical ObservatoryUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Date:10 February 2024
Journal or Publication Title:Radio Science
Refereed publication:Yes
Open Access:Yes
Gold Open Access:No
In ISI Web of Science:Yes
Keywords:- VLF signal processing with robust statistical methods, Median of Absolute Deviations and Pruned Exact Linear Time - Deduction of quiet time amplitude behavior through change point detection and systematic outlier filtering - VLF signal amplitude seasonal variation identified for five different transmitter-receiver paths during undisturbed conditions
HGF - Research field:Aeronautics, Space and Transport
HGF - Program:Space
HGF - Program Themes:Earth Observation
DLR - Research area:Raumfahrt
DLR - Program:R EO - Earth Observation
DLR - Research theme (Project):R - Solar-Terrestrial coupling processes
Location: Neustrelitz
Institutes and Institutions:Institute for Solar-Terrestrial Physics > Solar-Terrestrial Coupling Processes
Deposited By: Schneider, Helen
Deposited On:05 Apr 2024 20:55
Last Modified:18 Jun 2024 13:47

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