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In-Flight Nitrogen Oxide Measurements for Different Settings of a Lean Burn Engine

Stremming, Luca Leon (2024) In-Flight Nitrogen Oxide Measurements for Different Settings of a Lean Burn Engine. Master's, Delft University of Technology.

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Abstract

Aviation is an important contributor to anthropogenic climate change. As indirect greenhouse gases, nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2) add to the Effective Radiative Forcing (ERF) induced by aircraft emissions. This work addresses a better understanding of emission mitigation by investigating dependencies between engine parameters and emitted nitrogen oxides as a part of the campaign VOLCAN. In-flight near field measurements are conducted using the DLR research aircraft Falcon, chasing an Airbus A321neo equipped with CFM LEAP-1A engines featuring lean combustion through staged fuel injection. Nitrogen oxide concentrations are measured applying the well-established chemiluminescence method. Emission indices are quantified for different fuels including Jet A-1, Sustainable Aviation Fuel (SAF) and two SAF blends with different levels of aromatics. Four combustor inlet temperature settings are tested and staged (lean) combustion is compared to unstaged (rich) combustion. Emissions are measured for two different but technically identical engines, deviating in terms of exhaust gas temperature margin. As expected, results indicate no significant differences in emitted nitrogen oxides for the investigated fuels. Measurements confirm that nitrogen oxide emission indices increase exponentially with combustor inlet temperature. Due to the forced nature of the analyzed rich burn mode, a reduction in nitrogen oxide emissions through lean combustion cannot be confirmed. Based on presented data, a relationship between engine degradation and nitrogen oxides is likely. Near field observations agree with well-established far field measurements and lead to lower uncertainties. Preliminary results of the ECO-Demonstrator campaign are in line with VOLCAN measurements. The performed research is a highly valuable contribution to extremely rare empirical in-flight emission data. Established nitrogen oxide dependencies support technical decision making to reduce aviation’s climate impact.

Item URL in elib:https://elib.dlr.de/202670/
Document Type:Thesis (Master's)
Title:In-Flight Nitrogen Oxide Measurements for Different Settings of a Lean Burn Engine
Authors:
AuthorsInstitution or Email of AuthorsAuthor's ORCID iDORCID Put Code
Stremming, Luca LeonDLR, IPAUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Date:2024
Refereed publication:No
Open Access:No
Gold Open Access:No
In SCOPUS:No
In ISI Web of Science:No
Number of Pages:115
Status:Published
Keywords:nitrogen oxides, in flight measurements, sustainable aviation fuel, aviation, combustion, lean burn engine, VOLCAN, ECO Demonstrator
Institution:Delft University of Technology
Department:Faculty of Aerospace Engineering
HGF - Research field:Aeronautics, Space and Transport
HGF - Program:Aeronautics
HGF - Program Themes:Air Transportation and Impact
DLR - Research area:Aeronautics
DLR - Program:L AI - Air Transportation and Impact
DLR - Research theme (Project):L - Climate, Weather and Environment, L - Components and Emissions
Location: Oberpfaffenhofen
Institutes and Institutions:Institute of Atmospheric Physics > Atmospheric Trace Species
Deposited By: Stremming, Luca Leon
Deposited On:06 Feb 2024 07:39
Last Modified:06 Feb 2024 07:39

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