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Company for the Ultra-high Density, Ultra-short Period Sub-Earth GJ 367 b: Discovery of Two Additional Low-mass Planets at 11.5 and 34 Days

Goffo, E. and Gandolfi, D. and Egger, Jo Ann and Mustill, A. J. and Albrecht, S. and Hirano, T. and Kochukhov, O. and Astudillo-Defru, N. and Barragan, Oscar and Serrano, L. M. and Hatzes, A. and Alibert, Y. and Guenther, E. and Dai, F. and Lam, Wai Fun and Csizmadia, Szilard and Smith, Alexis M S and Fossati, L. and Luque, R. and Rodler, Florian and Winther, M. L. and Rørsted, J. L. and Alarcon, Javier and Bonfils, X. and Cochran, W. D. and Deeg, H and Jenkins, J. M. and Korth, J. and Livingston, J. and Meech, A. and Murgas, F. and Orell-Miquel, J. and Osborne, H. L. M. and Palle, E. and Persson, C. and Redfield, S. and Ricker, G. and Seager, S. and Vanderspek, R. and Van Eylen, V. and Winn, J. I. M. (2023) Company for the Ultra-high Density, Ultra-short Period Sub-Earth GJ 367 b: Discovery of Two Additional Low-mass Planets at 11.5 and 34 Days. Astrophysical Journal Letters, 955, L3. Institute of Physics (IOP) Publishing. doi: 10.3847/2041-8213/ace0c7. ISSN 2041-8205.

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Official URL: https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.3847/2041-8213/ace0c7

Abstract

GJ 367 is a bright (V ~10.2) M1 V star that has been recently found to host a transiting ultra-short period sub-Earth on a 7.7 hr orbit. With the aim of improving the planetary mass and radius and unveiling the inner architecture of the system, we performed an intensive radial velocity follow-up campaign with the HARPS spectrograph - collecting 371 high-precision measurements over a baseline of nearly 3 yr - and combined our Doppler measurements with new TESS observations from sectors 35 and 36. We found that GJ 367 b has a mass of Mb = 0.633 +/- 0.050 ME and a radius of Rb = 0.699 +/- 0.024 RE, corresponding to precisions of 8% and 3.4%, respectively. This implies a planetary bulk density of rhob = 10.2 +/- 1.3 g cm-3, i.e., 85% higher than Earth's density. We revealed the presence of two additional non-transiting low-mass companions with orbital periods of ~11.5 and 34 days and minimum masses of = 4.13 +/- 0.36 ME and = 6.03 +/- 0.49 ME, respectively, which lie close to the 3:1 mean motion commensurability. GJ 367 b joins the small class of high-density planets, namely the class of super-Mercuries, being the densest ultra-short period small planet known to date. Thanks to our precise mass and radius estimates, we explored the potential internal composition and structure of GJ 367 b, and found that it is expected to have an iron core with a mass fraction of 0.91+0.07-.23 How this iron core is formed and how such a high density is reached is still not clear, and we discuss the possible pathways of formation of such a small ultra-dense planet.

Item URL in elib:https://elib.dlr.de/201985/
Document Type:Article
Title:Company for the Ultra-high Density, Ultra-short Period Sub-Earth GJ 367 b: Discovery of Two Additional Low-mass Planets at 11.5 and 34 Days
Authors:
AuthorsInstitution or Email of AuthorsAuthor's ORCID iDORCID Put Code
Goffo, E.Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Torino, via PietroGiuria 1, I-10125, Torino, ItalyUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Gandolfi, D.Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Torino, via Pietro Giuria 1, 10125, Torino, ItalyUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Egger, Jo AnnPhysikalisches Institut, University of Bern, Gesellsschaftstrasse 6, CH-3012 Bern, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Mustill, A. J.Lund Observatory, Department of Astronomy and Theoretical Physics, Lund University, 22100, Lund, SwedenUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Albrecht, S.Stellar Astrophysics Centre, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade 120, DK-8000 Aarhus C, DenmarkUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Hirano, T.department of earth and planetary sciences, tokyo institute of technology, 2-12-1 ookayama, meguro-ku, tokyo 152-8551, japanUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Kochukhov, O.Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, SE-75120 Uppsala, SwedenUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Astudillo-Defru, N.Departamento de Matemática y Físíca Aplicadas, Universidad Católica de la Santísima Concepción, Alonso de Rivera 2850, Concepción, ChileUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Barragan, OscarOxford Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH, UKUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Serrano, L. M.Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Torino, via Pietro Giuria 1, I-10125, Torino, ItalyUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Hatzes, A.Thüringer Landessternwarte Tautenburg, Sternwarte 5, D-07778 Tautenberg, GermanyUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Alibert, Y.Physikalisches Institut, University of Bern;Observatoire de Besançon, Institut UTINAM, FranceUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Guenther, E.Thueringer Landessternwarte, Sternwarte 5, Tautenburg 5, D-07778 Tautenburg, GermanyUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Dai, F.Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, 4 Ivy Lane, Princeton, NJ, 08544, USA; Department of Physics and Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, MIT, Cambridge, MA, 02139, USAUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Lam, Wai FunUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Csizmadia, SzilardUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Smith, Alexis M SUNSPECIFIEDhttps://orcid.org/0000-0002-2386-4341UNSPECIFIED
Fossati, L.Space Research Institute, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Schmiedlstrasse 6, A-8042 Graz, Austriahttps://orcid.org/0000-0003-4426-9530UNSPECIFIED
Luque, R.Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USAUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Rodler, FlorianEuropean Southern Observatory(ESO), Alonso de Córdova 3107, Vitacura, Casilla 19001, Santiago de Chile, ChileUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Winther, M. L.Stellar Astrophysics Centre, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade 120, DK-8000 Aarhus C, DenmarkUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Rørsted, J. L.Stellar Astrophysics Centre, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade 120, DK-8000 Aarhus C, DenmarkUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Alarcon, JavierEuropean Southern Observatory(ESO), Alonso de Córdova 3107, Vitacura, Casilla 19001, Santiago de Chile, ChileUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Bonfils, X.Institut de Planétologie et d'Astrophysique, University of Grenoble, FranceUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Cochran, W. D.Department of Astronomy and McDonald Observatory, University of Texas at Austin, 2515 Speedway, Stop C1400, Austin, TX 78712, USAUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Deeg, HInstituto de Astrofısica de Canarias (IAC), 38205 La Laguna, SpainUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Jenkins, J. M.NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA, 94035, USAUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Korth, J.Lund Observatory, Division of Astrophysics, Department of Physics, Lund University, Lund, SwedenUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Livingston, J.Department of Astronomy, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan; Astrobiology Center, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588, Japan; National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588, JapanUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Meech, A.Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Keble Road, Oxford, OX1 3RH, UKUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Murgas, F.Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias (IAC), 38205, La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain; Departamento de Astrofisica, Universidad de La Laguna (ULL), 38206, La Laguna, Tenerife, SpainUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Orell-Miquel, J.Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC), 38205, La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain; Departamento de Astrofísica, Universidad de La Laguna (ULL), 38206, La Laguna, Tenerife, SpainUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Osborne, H. L. M.Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London, Holmbury St Mary, Dorking, Surrey RH5 6NT, UKUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Palle, E.Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC), 38205 La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain; Departamento de Astrofísica, Universidad de La Laguna (ULL), 38206 La Laguna, Tenerife, SpainUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Persson, C.Department of Earth and Space Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, Onsala Space Observatory, SE-439 92 Onsala, SwedenUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Redfield, S.Astronomy Department and Van Vleck Observatory, Wesleyan University, Middletown, CT 06459, USAUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Ricker, G.Department of Physics and Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USAUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Seager, S.NSF Graduate Research Fellow, Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, 85721, USA; Department of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences, MIT, Cambridge, MA, 02139, USA; Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, MIT, Cambridge, MA, 0213UNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Vanderspek, R.Department of Physics and Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, MIT, Cambridge, MA, 02139, USAUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Van Eylen, V.Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London,Holmbury St Mary, Dorking, Surrey RH5 6NT, UKUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Winn, J. I. M.Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, 4 Ivy Lane, Princeton, NJ 08544, USAUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Date:14 September 2023
Journal or Publication Title:Astrophysical Journal Letters
Refereed publication:Yes
Open Access:Yes
Gold Open Access:Yes
In SCOPUS:Yes
In ISI Web of Science:Yes
Volume:955
DOI:10.3847/2041-8213/ace0c7
Page Range:L3
Publisher:Institute of Physics (IOP) Publishing
ISSN:2041-8205
Status:Published
Keywords:Exoplanet detection methods; Exoplanet systems; Exoplanets; Extrasolar rocky planets; 489; 484; 498; 511; Astrophysics - Earth and Planetary Astrophysics
HGF - Research field:Aeronautics, Space and Transport
HGF - Program:Space
HGF - Program Themes:Space Exploration
DLR - Research area:Raumfahrt
DLR - Program:R EW - Space Exploration
DLR - Research theme (Project):R - Project PLATO - PMC and Science
Location: Berlin-Adlershof
Institutes and Institutions:Institute of Planetary Research > Extrasolar Planets and Atmospheres
Deposited By: Cabrera Perez, Juan
Deposited On:11 Jan 2024 10:19
Last Modified:12 Mar 2024 11:52

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