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Measurements of particle emissions and contrail ice particle properties behind a large passenger aircraft burning 100% sustainable aviation fuel in cruise

Sauer, Daniel and Dischl, Rebecca Katharina and Märkl, Raphael Satoru and Harlass, Theresa and Sakellariou, Felicitas Maria and Dörnbrack, Andreas and Gauthier, Maxime and Grein, Tobias and Hahn, Valerian and Kaufmann, Stefan and Kulathasan, Ashog and LeClercq, Patrick and Lobo, Prem and Luff, Darren and Madden, P. and Marsing, Andreas and Rauch, Bastian and Renard, Charles and Roiger, Anke-Elisabeth and Sallinen, Reetu and Scheibe, Monika and Schripp, Tobias and Schumann, Ulrich and Smallwood, Gregory J. and Smith, Brett and Swann, Peter and Tomsche, Laura and Voigt, Christiane and Corbin, Joel C. and Johnson, Mark (2023) Measurements of particle emissions and contrail ice particle properties behind a large passenger aircraft burning 100% sustainable aviation fuel in cruise. Fall Meeting of the American Geophysical Union, 10.-15. Dez 2023, San Francisco, USA.

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The use of sustainable aviation fuels (SAF) derived from biomass and waste materials can provide one approach to partially decarbonize air traffic relatively quickly and offers a pathway to mitigate the non-CO2 climate impacts from long-lived contrails on short time scales. Many SAFs naturally contain no or only low amounts of aromatic compounds which act as soot precursors during combustion. As soot particles serve as primary nucleus for contrail ice, lower soot emissions should result in lower contrail ice particle numbers. In the joint project ECLIF3 (Emissions and Climate Impact of alternative Fuels), DLR, Airbus, Rolls-Royce, Neste and other participants aimed to characterize emissions and contrail properties behind a modern passenger aircraft burning both conventional Jet A-1 fuel and HEFA-SPK (Hydroprocessed Esters and Fatty Acids Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene) and a blend of HEFA-SPK and Jet A-1 on both engines on the ground and in flight. For the first time, flight tests in cruise using 100% HEFA-SPK on all engines were feasible in this framework. In two field campaigns in 2021 an Airbus A350-900 equipped with Rolls Royce Trent XWB-84 engines served as source aircraft. With the DLR Falcon 20E5 research aircraft we probed trace gases, volatile and non-volatile particles, and ice particle properties. The independent fuel tanks of the A350 permitted us to sample emissions from reference Jet A-1 and HEFA-SPK in similar meteorological conditions. Measurements of the exhaust closely behind the engine exit and up to several minutes behind the lead aircraft allowed us to characterize both, direct engine emissions depending on engine thrust conditions and the effects on contrail formation and properties. With respect to the Jet A-1 used here, we find a significant reduction in non-volatile particle emissions when burning HEFA-SPK; similar trends are seen in the ice particle numbers in the contrails. The results outline the importance of fuel composition (e.g. sulfur and aromatics content) on particle emissions and contrail formation. The analysis also shows the complexity of the contrail formation process and its dependence on fuel composition, engine thrust and meteorological conditions in the ambient atmosphere.

Item URL in elib:https://elib.dlr.de/200135/
Document Type:Conference or Workshop Item (Poster)
Title:Measurements of particle emissions and contrail ice particle properties behind a large passenger aircraft burning 100% sustainable aviation fuel in cruise
AuthorsInstitution or Email of AuthorsAuthor's ORCID iDORCID Put Code
Sauer, DanielDLR, IPAhttps://orcid.org/0000-0002-0317-5063UNSPECIFIED
Märkl, Raphael SatoruDLR, IPAhttps://orcid.org/0000-0002-0451-2084UNSPECIFIED
Harlass, TheresaDLR, IPAhttps://orcid.org/0000-0002-1792-6649UNSPECIFIED
Dörnbrack, AndreasDLR, IPAhttps://orcid.org/0000-0003-0936-0216UNSPECIFIED
Gauthier, MaximeAirbus Operations SAS, Toulouse, FranceUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Kaufmann, StefanDLR, IPAhttps://orcid.org/0000-0002-0767-1996UNSPECIFIED
Kulathasan, AshogAirbus, Toulouse, FranceUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Lobo, PremNational Research Council Canada, Ottawa, CanadaUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Luff, DarrenRolls-Royce plc., Derby, UKUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Madden, P.Rolls-Royce plc, Derby, UKUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Marsing, AndreasDLR, IPAhttps://orcid.org/0000-0002-5006-2133UNSPECIFIED
Rauch, BastianDLR, VThttps://orcid.org/0000-0002-1393-5943UNSPECIFIED
Renard, CharlesAirbus Operations SAS, Toulouse, FranceUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Sallinen, ReetuNeste Corporation, Innovation, Porvoo, FinlandUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Schripp, TobiasDLR, VThttps://orcid.org/0000-0002-1594-7331UNSPECIFIED
Schumann, UlrichDLR, IPAhttps://orcid.org/0000-0001-5255-6869UNSPECIFIED
Smallwood, Gregory J.National Research Council Canada, Ottawa, CanadaUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Smith, BrettNational Research Council Canada, Ottawa, CanadaUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Swann, PeterRolls-Royce plc., Derby, UKUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Voigt, ChristianeDLR, IPAhttps://orcid.org/0000-0001-8925-7731UNSPECIFIED
Corbin, Joel C.Metrology Research Centre, National Research Council Canada, Ottawa, CanadaUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Johnson, MarkRolls-Royce plc, Derby, UKUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Date:December 2023
Refereed publication:No
Open Access:Yes
Gold Open Access:No
In ISI Web of Science:No
Keywords:Aviation emissions, climate impact, measurements
Event Title:Fall Meeting of the American Geophysical Union
Event Location:San Francisco, USA
Event Type:international Conference
Event Dates:10.-15. Dez 2023
Organizer:Americon Geophysical Union
HGF - Research field:Aeronautics, Space and Transport
HGF - Program:Transport
HGF - Program Themes:Road Transport
DLR - Research area:Transport
DLR - Program:V ST Straßenverkehr
DLR - Research theme (Project):V - Future Fuels, L - Climate, Weather and Environment, L - Components and Emissions
Location: Oberpfaffenhofen , Stuttgart
Institutes and Institutions:Institute of Atmospheric Physics
Institute of Combustion Technology
Flight Experiments > Oberpfaffenhofen
Deposited By: Sauer, Dr. Daniel
Deposited On:01 Dec 2023 09:05
Last Modified:01 Dec 2023 11:28

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