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Characterization of the Amazon Rainforest Backscatter at X-Band Using TanDEM-X Data

Dell Amore, Luca and Bueso Bello, Jose Luis and Klenk, Patrick and Reimann, Jens and Rizzoli, Paola (2023) Characterization of the Amazon Rainforest Backscatter at X-Band Using TanDEM-X Data. IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing. IEEE - Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. doi: 10.1109/JSTARS.2023.3338982. ISSN 1939-1404.

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The radiometric calibration of spaceborne SAR products plays a key role for ensuring a good performance of the whole end-to-end system and requires a precise knowledge of both the radar system and the illuminated target on ground. The shape of the antenna pattern in elevation can be directly estimated by analyzing SAR detected images in presence of a homogeneous and flat backscatter profile in the slant range dimension. To this aim, tropical rainforests have been established by the SAR community as well-known calibration sites for performing such an activity. Here, according to the hypothesis of isotropic scattering, the backscattering coefficient in terms of unit area perpendicular to the antenna, called gamma nought, is assumed to remain constant with respect to the incidence angle. Nevertheless, several studies using X- and C-band sensors have shown a slight dependency of the backscatter on the incidence angle, as well as on ground target properties and meteorological conditions. In this work, we present a detailed statistical characterization of radar backscatter at X-band over the Amazon rainforest using TanDEM-X data and we provide insights on how to best utilize radar backscatter data in this region for SAR calibration and modeling purposes. In particular, we concentrate on the dependency of the Amazon rainforest backscatter on the day-time of acquisition, which is directly related to the orbit direction of TanDEM-X. Furthermore, we analyze the seasonal variation of the radar backscatter, as well as possible radiation variations over different locations in the Amazon, characterized by different climate conditions and biomes. Finally, we provide a series of backscatter models for different scenarios, which can be used, e.g., for X-band spaceborne SAR system design and theoretical modeling.

Item URL in elib:https://elib.dlr.de/199036/
Document Type:Article
Title:Characterization of the Amazon Rainforest Backscatter at X-Band Using TanDEM-X Data
AuthorsInstitution or Email of AuthorsAuthor's ORCID iDORCID Put Code
Dell Amore, LucaUNSPECIFIEDhttps://orcid.org/0000-0002-6731-1300148184033
Bueso Bello, Jose LuisUNSPECIFIEDhttps://orcid.org/0000-0003-3464-2186UNSPECIFIED
Klenk, PatrickUNSPECIFIEDhttps://orcid.org/0000-0002-8284-2265UNSPECIFIED
Reimann, JensUNSPECIFIEDhttps://orcid.org/0000-0002-0650-9073UNSPECIFIED
Rizzoli, PaolaUNSPECIFIEDhttps://orcid.org/0000-0001-9118-2732UNSPECIFIED
Date:4 December 2023
Journal or Publication Title:IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing
Refereed publication:Yes
Open Access:Yes
Gold Open Access:Yes
In ISI Web of Science:Yes
Publisher:IEEE - Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
Keywords:Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR), SAR Calibration, Amazon Rainforest, TanDEM-X
HGF - Research field:Aeronautics, Space and Transport
HGF - Program:Space
HGF - Program Themes:Earth Observation
DLR - Research area:Raumfahrt
DLR - Program:R EO - Earth Observation
DLR - Research theme (Project):R - AI4SAR
Location: Oberpfaffenhofen
Institutes and Institutions:Microwaves and Radar Institute > Spaceborne SAR Systems
Deposited By: Dell Amore, Luca
Deposited On:13 Nov 2023 12:30
Last Modified:07 Mar 2024 11:37

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