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Detectability of carbon with ChemCam LIBS: Distinguishing sample from Mars atmospheric carbon, and application to Gale crater

Beck, P. and Meslin, P.Y. and Fau, A. and Forni, O. and Gasnault, O. and Lasue, J. and Cousin, A. and Schröder, Susanne and Maurice, S. and Rapin, W. and Wiens, R.C. and Ollila, A.M. and Dehouck, E. and Mangold, N. and Garcia, B. and Schwartz, S. and Goetz, W. and Lanza, N. (2023) Detectability of carbon with ChemCam LIBS: Distinguishing sample from Mars atmospheric carbon, and application to Gale crater. Icarus, 408, p. 115840. Elsevier. doi: 10.1016/j.icarus.2023.115840. ISSN 0019-1035.

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Official URL: https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.icarus.2023.115840

Abstract

Onboard NASA's Curiosity rover, the ChemCam LIBS instrument has provided a wealth of information on the chemistry of rocks within Gale crater. Here, we use ChemCam in order to search for carbonates among the >3500 individual targets analyzed by this instrument. Because the carbon-lines are a combination of signal from the CO2-rich atmosphere and possible carbon from the targets, we developed a laboratory-based univariate calibration obtained under Mars-like atmosphere. We measured different type of carbon-bearing samples (sediments, coals, carbonates) and their mixture with a basaltic powder. Based on this work, the preferred approach to qualitatively assess carbon under a CO2-rich atmosphere is to use a ratio to an oxygen line (777 nm) and the estimated limit of detection for carbon in a single LIBS point are found to be of 4.5 wt% and 6.9 wt% for reduced and organic carbon, respectively. Considering carbonate, this LOD correspond to about 50 wt% carbonate in the analyzed volume. Analysis of data obtained on Mars by ChemCam up to sol 3350 reveals the presence of a correlation between the intensity of carbon and oxygen lines, as observed in the laboratory, confirming that most carbon signal is related to ionization of the atmosphere. Some variability in the carbon signal appears related to the physical state of the atmosphere (density, temperature). Based on a combined analysis of carbon lines and major element compositions (Ca, Fe, Mg), there was no detection of carbonate in the ChemCam dataset up to sol 3355. Therefore, we conclude that carbonate was not present as a major constituent (>50%) in the ChemCam LIBS targets, and that soils are not enriched in carbon beyond the limit of detection. The dominant salts present are sulfate, chlorides, and the lack of carbonates in Gale, while observed in Jezero, may at least partly be related to a difference in protolith.

Item URL in elib:https://elib.dlr.de/198813/
Document Type:Article
Title:Detectability of carbon with ChemCam LIBS: Distinguishing sample from Mars atmospheric carbon, and application to Gale crater
Authors:
AuthorsInstitution or Email of AuthorsAuthor's ORCID iDORCID Put Code
Beck, P.UNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Meslin, P.Y.UNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Fau, A.UNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Forni, O.UNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Gasnault, O.UNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Lasue, J.UNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Cousin, A.UNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Schröder, SusanneUNSPECIFIEDhttps://orcid.org/0000-0003-1870-3663UNSPECIFIED
Maurice, S.UNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Rapin, W.UNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Wiens, R.C.UNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Ollila, A.M.UNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Dehouck, E.UNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Mangold, N.UNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Garcia, B.UNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Schwartz, S.UNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Goetz, W.UNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Lanza, N.UNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Date:17 October 2023
Journal or Publication Title:Icarus
Refereed publication:Yes
Open Access:No
Gold Open Access:No
In SCOPUS:Yes
In ISI Web of Science:Yes
Volume:408
DOI:10.1016/j.icarus.2023.115840
Page Range:p. 115840
Publisher:Elsevier
ISSN:0019-1035
Status:Published
Keywords:LIBS, in-situ, spectroscopy, Mars, Mineralogy, Carbonates, Atmosphere, ChemCam, MSL, Curiosity
HGF - Research field:Aeronautics, Space and Transport
HGF - Program:Space
HGF - Program Themes:Robotics
DLR - Research area:Raumfahrt
DLR - Program:R RO - Robotics
DLR - Research theme (Project):R - OptoRob [RO]
Location: Berlin-Adlershof
Institutes and Institutions:Institute of Optical Sensor Systems
Institute of Optical Sensor Systems > In-Situ Sensing
Deposited By: Schröder, Susanne
Deposited On:08 Nov 2023 09:47
Last Modified:29 Jan 2024 12:56

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