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Investigating the visible phase-curve variability of 55 Cnc e

Meier Valdés, E. A. and Morris, B. M. and Demory, B.-O. and Brandeker, A. and Kitzmann, D. and Benz, W. and Deline, A. and Florén, H.-G. and Sousa, S. G. and Bourrier, V. and Singh, V. and Heng, K. and Strugarek, A. and Bower, D. J. and Jäggi, N. and Carone, L. and Lendl, M. and Jones, K. and Oza, A. V. and Demangeon, O. D. S. and Alibert, Y. and Alonso, R. and Anglada, G. and Asquier, J. and Bàrczy, T. and Barrado Navascues, D. and Barros, S. C. C. and Baumjohann, W. and Beck, M. and Beck, T. and Billot, N. and Bonfils, X. and Borsato, L. and Broeg, C. and Cabrera, J. and Charnoz, S. and Collier Cameron, A. and Csizmadia, Sz. and Cubillos, P. E. and Davies, M. B. and Deleuil, M. and Delrez, L. and Ehrenreich, D. and Erikson, A. and Fortier, A. and Fossati, L. and Fridlund, M. and Gandolfi, D. and Gillon, M. and Güdel, M. and Günther, M. N. and Hoyer, S. and Isaak, K. G. and Kiss, L. L. and Laskar, J. and Lecavelier des Etangs, A. and Lovis, C. and Magrin, D. and Maxted, P. F. L. and Mordasini, C. and Nascimbeni, V. and Olofsson, G. and Ottensamer, R. and Pagano, I. and Palle, E. and Peter, G. and Piotto, G. and Pollacco, D. and Queloz, D. and Ragazzoni, R. and Rando, N. and Rauer, H. and Ribas, I. and Santos, N. C. and Sarajlic, M. and Scandariato, G. and Ségransan, D. and Sicilia, D. and Simon, A. E. and Smith, A. M. S. and Steller, M. and Szabó, Gy. M. and Thomas, N. and Udry, S. and Ulmer, B. and Van Grootel, V. and Venturini, J. and Walton, N. A. and Wilson, T. G. and Wolter, D. (2023) Investigating the visible phase-curve variability of 55 Cnc e. Astronomy & Astrophysics, 677, A112. EDP Sciences. doi: 10.1051/0004-6361/202346050. ISSN 0004-6361.

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Official URL: https://www.aanda.org/articles/aa/full_html/2023/09/aa46050-23/aa46050-23.html

Abstract

Context. 55 Cnc e is an ultra-short period super-Earth transiting a Sun-like star. Previous observations in the optical range detected a time-variable flux modulation that is phased with the planetary orbital period, whose amplitude is too large to be explained by reflected light and thermal emission alone. Aims: The goal of the study is to investigate the origin of the variability and timescale of the phase-curve modulation in 55 Cnc e. To this end, we used the CHaracterising ExOPlanet Satellite (CHEOPS), whose exquisite photometric precision provides an opportunity to characterise minute changes in the phase curve from one orbit to the next. Methods: CHEOPS observed 29 individual visits of 55 Cnc e between March 2020 and February 2022. Based on these observations, we investigated the different processes that could be at the origin of the observed modulation. In particular, we built a toy model to assess whether a circumstellar torus of dust driven by radiation pressure and gravity might match the observed flux variability timescale. Results: We find that the phase-curve amplitude and peak offset of 55 Cnc e do vary between visits. The sublimation timescales of selected dust species reveal that silicates expected in an Earth-like mantle would not survive long enough to explain the observed phase-curve modulation. We find that silicon carbide, quartz, and graphite are plausible candidates for the circumstellar torus composition because their sublimation timescales are long. Conclusions: The extensive CHEOPS observations confirm that the phase-curve amplitude and offset vary in time. We find that dust could provide the grey opacity source required to match the observations. However, the data at hand do not provide evidence that circumstellar material with a variable grain mass per unit area causes the observed variability. Future observations with the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) promise exciting insights into this iconic super-Earth.

Item URL in elib:https://elib.dlr.de/198705/
Document Type:Article
Title:Investigating the visible phase-curve variability of 55 Cnc e
Authors:
AuthorsInstitution or Email of AuthorsAuthor's ORCID iDORCID Put Code
Meier Valdés, E. A.Center for Space and Habitability, University of Bern, Gesellschaftsstrasse 6, 3012, Bern, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Morris, B. M.Center for Space and Habitability, University of Bern, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Demory, B.-O.Center for Space and Habitability, Gesellsschaftstrasse 6, 3012, Bern, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Brandeker, A.Department of Astronomy – Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm, SwedenUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Kitzmann, D.Center for Space and Habitability, University of Bern, Gesellschaftsstraße 6, 3012, Bern, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Benz, W.Physics Institute, Space Research & Planetary Sciences, University of Bern, Sidlerstr. 5, CH-3012 Bern, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Deline, A.Observatoire de Genève, University of Geneva, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Florén, H.-G.Department of Astronomy, Stockholm University, AlbaNova University Center, SE-10691 Stockholm, SwedenUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Sousa, S. G.Instituto de Astrofisica e Ciencias do Espaco, Universidade do Porto, CAUP, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto, PortugalUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Bourrier, V.Université de Genève, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Singh, V.INAF, Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, ItalyUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Heng, K.Ludwig Maximilian University, University Observatory Munich, Scheinerstrasse 1, Munich, 81679, Germany; University of Warwick, Department of Physics, Astronomy & Astrophysics Group, Coventry, CV4 7AL, UK; University of Bern, ARTORG Center for Biomedical EUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Strugarek, A.Université Paris-Saclay, Université Paris Cité, CEA, CNRS, AIM, 91191, Gif-sur-Yvette, FranceUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Bower, D. J.Center for Space and Habitability, University of Bern, Gesellschaftsstrasse 6, 3012, Bern, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Jäggi, N.Physikalisches Institut, University of Bern, Sidlerstrasse 5, 3012, Bern, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Carone, L.Space Research Institute, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Schmiedlstrasse 6, 8042, Graz, AustriaUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Lendl, M.Observatoire de Genève, Université de Genève, Chemin Pegasi, 51, 1290, Versoix, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Jones, K.Center for Space and Habitability, Gesellsschaftstrasse 6, 3012, Bern, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Oza, A. V.Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Dr., Pasadena, CA 91109, USA; Physikalisches Institut, Universität Bern, Gesellschaftsstrasse 6, 3012, Bern, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Demangeon, O. D. S.Instituto de Astrofísica e Ciências do Espaço, Universidade do Porto, CAUP, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762, Porto, PortugalUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Alibert, Y.Physikalisches Institut, University of Bern, Sidlerstrasse 5, 3012, Bern, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Alonso, R.Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias (IAC), Via Lactea s/n 38200, La Laguna, SpainUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Anglada, G.Institut de Ciencies de l'Espai (ICE, CSIC), Campus UAB, Can Magrans s/n, 08193, Bellaterra, Spain; Institut d'Estudis Espacials de Catalunya (IEEC), Carrer del Gran Capità, 2, 08034, Barcelona, SpainUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Asquier, J.ESA/ESTEC, NiederlandeUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Bàrczy, T.Admatis, Miskolc, HungaryUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Barrado Navascues, D.Depto. de Astrofisica, Centro de Astrobiologia (CSIC-INTA), ESAC Campus, E-28692 Villanueva de la Cañada, Madrid, SpainUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Barros, S. C. C.Instituto de Astrofisica e Ciencias do Espaco, Universidade do Porto, CAUP, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto, PortugalUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Baumjohann, W.Space Research Institute, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Graz, Austriahttps://orcid.org/0000-0001-6271-0110UNSPECIFIED
Beck, M.Observatoire de Genève, University of Geneva, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Beck, T.Center for Space and Habitability, University of Bern, Gesellschaftsstraße 6, 3012, Bern, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Billot, N.Observatoire de Genève, University of Geneva, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Bonfils, X.Institut de Planétologie et d'Astrophysique, University of Grenoble, FranceUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Borsato, L.Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita degli Studi di Padova, via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova, ItalyUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Broeg, C.Physikalisches Institut, University of Bern, Bern, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Cabrera, J.UNSPECIFIEDhttps://orcid.org/0000-0001-6653-5487UNSPECIFIED
Charnoz, S.Université de Paris, Institut de physique du globe de Paris, CNRS, F-75005 Paris, FranceUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Collier Cameron, A.SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St. Andrews, North Haugh, Fife KY16 9SS, UKhttps://orcid.org/0000-0002-8863-7828UNSPECIFIED
Csizmadia, Sz.UNSPECIFIEDhttps://orcid.org/0000-0001-6803-9698UNSPECIFIED
Cubillos, P. E.Space Research Institute, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Schmiedlstrasse 6, 8041 Graz, AustriaUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Davies, M. B.Lund Observatory, Department of Astronomy and Theoretical Physics, Lund University, 22100, Lund, SwedenUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Deleuil, M.Laboratoire d´Astrophysique de Marseille, FranceUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Delrez, L.Institut d Astrophysique et de Geophysique, Universite de Liege, Allee du 6 Aout, 17, Bat. B5C, Liege 1, BelgiumUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Ehrenreich, D.Observatoire de Genève, University of Geneva, Switzerlandhttps://orcid.org/0000-0001-9704-5405UNSPECIFIED
Erikson, A.UNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Fortier, A.Physikalisches Institut, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerlandhttps://orcid.org/0000-0001-8450-3374UNSPECIFIED
Fossati, L.Space Research Institute, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Schmiedlstrasse 6, A-8042 Graz, Austriahttps://orcid.org/0000-0003-4426-9530UNSPECIFIED
Fridlund, M.Department of Space, Earth and Environment, Onsala Space Observatory, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-439 92, Onsala, Sweden; Leiden Observatory, University of Leiden, PO Box 9513, 2300 RA, Leiden, The NetherlandsUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Gandolfi, D.Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Torino, via P. Giuria 1, I-10125 Torino, ItalyUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Gillon, M.Astrobiology Research Unit, Université de Liège, 19C Allée du 6 Août, 4000, Liège, BelgiumUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Güdel, M.Department of Astrophysics, University of Vienna, Tuerkenschanzstrasse 17, A-1180 Vienna, AustriaUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Günther, M. N.European Space Agency (ESA), European Space Research and Technology Centre (ESTEC), Keplerlaan 1, 2201 AZ, Noordwijk, The NetherlandsUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Hoyer, S.Aix Marseille Univ, CNRS, CNES, LAM, 38 rue Frédéric Joliot-Curie, 13388 Marseille, Francehttps://orcid.org/0000-0003-3477-2466UNSPECIFIED
Isaak, K. G.Science and Operations Department - Science Division (SCI-SC), Directorate of Science, European Space Agency (ESA), European Space Research and Technology Centre (ESTEC), Keplerlaan 1, 2201-AZ, Noordwijk, The NetherlandsUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Kiss, L. L.Konkoly Observatory, Research Centre for Astronomy and Earth, Budapest, HungaryUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Laskar, J.IMCCE, UMR8028 CNRS, Observatoire de Paris, PSL Univ.,Sorbonne Univ., 77 av. Denfert-Rochereau, 75014 Paris, FranceUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Lecavelier des Etangs, A.Institut d Astrophysique de Paris, CNRS, UMR 7095 & Sorbonne Universites, UPMC Paris 6, 98 bis bd Arago, 75014 Paris, FranceUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Lovis, C.Geneva Observatory, University of Geneva, Chemin des Mailettes 51, 1290, Versoix, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Magrin, D.INAF,OsservatorioAstronomicodiPadova,Vicolodell’Osservatorio 5, 35122 Padova, ItalyUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Maxted, P. F. L.Astrophysics Group, Keele University, Staffordshire ST5 5BG, UKUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Mordasini, C.Physikalisches Institut, University of Bern, Gesellschaftsstrasse 6, 3012, Bern, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Nascimbeni, V.INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, vicolo dell Osservatorio 5, 35122 Padova, ItalyUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Olofsson, G.Department of Astronomy, Stockholm University, AlbaNova University Center, 10691 Stockholm, SwedenUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Ottensamer, R.University of Vienna, Department of Astrophysics, AustriaUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Pagano, I.INAF - Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, ItalyUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Palle, E.Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, 38205 La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain | Departamento de Astrofisica, Universidad de La Laguna, 38206 La Laguna, SpainUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Peter, G.UNSPECIFIEDhttps://orcid.org/0000-0001-6101-2513UNSPECIFIED
Piotto, G.INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, vicolo dell Osservatorio 5, 35122 Padova, ItalyUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Pollacco, D.Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Gibbet Hill Road, Coventry, CV4 7AL, UK; Centre for Exoplanets and Habitability, University of Warwick, Gibbet Hill Road, Coventry, CV4 7AL, UKUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Queloz, D.ETH Zurich, Department of Physics, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 2, 8093, Zurich, Switzerland; Cavendish Laboratory, JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge, CB3 0HE, UKUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Ragazzoni, R.INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell'Osservatorio 5, 35122 Padova, ItalyUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Rando, N.ESA/ESTEC, Noordwijk, NiederlandeUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Rauer, H.UNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Ribas, I.Institut de Ciències de l’Espai (CSIC), Campus UAB, c/ de Can Magrans s/n, Barcelona, Spain; Institut d’Estudis Espacials de Catalunya, Barcelona, SpainUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Santos, N. C.Instituto de Astrofisica e Ciencias do Espaco, Universidade do Porto, CAUP, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto, Portugal; Departamento de Fisica e Astronomia, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade do Porto, Rua Campo Alegre, 4169-007 Porto, PortugalUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Sarajlic, M.Physikalisches Institut, University of Bern, Gesellsschaftstrasse 6, 3012, Bern, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Scandariato, G.INAF, Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, Via S. Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, ItalyUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Ségransan, D.Geneva Observatory, University of Geneva, Chemin Pegasi 51, CH-1290 Versoix, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Sicilia, D.INAF – Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, Via S.Sofia 78, 95123 Catania, ItalyUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Simon, A. E.Center for Space and Habitability, University of Bern, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Smith, A. M. S.UNSPECIFIEDhttps://orcid.org/0000-0002-2386-4341UNSPECIFIED
Steller, M.Space Research Institute, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Schmiedlstrasse 6, 8042, Graz, AustriaUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Szabó, Gy. M.ELTE Eötvös Loránd University, Gothard Astrophysical Observatory, 9700, Szombathely, Szent Imre h. u. 112, Hungary ; MTA-ELTE Exoplanet Research Group, 9700, Szombathely, Szent Imre h. u. 112, HungaryUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Thomas, N.Physikalisches Institut, University of Bern, Sidlerstrasse 5, 3012, Bern, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Udry, S.Observatoire de Genève, Université de Genève, Chemin Pegasi, 51, 1290, Versoix, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Ulmer, B.Institute of Optical Sensor Systems, German Aerospace Center (DLR), Rutherfordstrasse 2, 12489, Berlin, GermanyUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Van Grootel, V.Space sciences, Technologies and Astrophysics Research (STAR) Institute, Université de Liège, Allée du 6 Août 19C, 4000 Liège, BelgiumUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Venturini, J.Observatoire Astronomique de l'Université de Genève, Chemin Pegasi 51, 1290, Versoix, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Walton, N. A.Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UKUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Wilson, T. G.School of Physics and Astronomy, St. Andrews, UKhttps://orcid.org/0000-0001-8749-1962UNSPECIFIED
Wolter, D.UNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Date:28 July 2023
Journal or Publication Title:Astronomy & Astrophysics
Refereed publication:Yes
Open Access:Yes
Gold Open Access:No
In SCOPUS:Yes
In ISI Web of Science:Yes
Volume:677
DOI:10.1051/0004-6361/202346050
Page Range:A112
Publisher:EDP Sciences
ISSN:0004-6361
Status:Published
Keywords:stars: individual: 55 Cnc, techniques: photometric, planets and satellites: individual: 55 Cnc e, Astrophysics - Earth and Planetary Astrophysics
HGF - Research field:Aeronautics, Space and Transport
HGF - Program:Space
HGF - Program Themes:Space Exploration
DLR - Research area:Raumfahrt
DLR - Program:R EW - Space Exploration
DLR - Research theme (Project):R - CHEOPS Science, R - Project CHEOPS
Location: Berlin-Adlershof
Institutes and Institutions:Institute of Planetary Research > Extrasolar Planets and Atmospheres
Institute of Planetary Research > Leitungsbereich PF
Institute of Optical Sensor Systems > Space Instruments
Institute of Planetary Research > Planetary Sensor Systems
Deposited By: Smith, Dr Alexis M S
Deposited On:13 Nov 2023 10:23
Last Modified:29 Jan 2024 12:17

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