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Mineralogy of the Venus Surface

Gilmore, Martha and Dyar, M. D. and Mueller, Nils and Brossier, Jérémy and Santos, Alison and Ivanov, Mikhail and Ghail, Richard and Filiberto, Justin and Helbert, Jörn (2023) Mineralogy of the Venus Surface. Space Science Reviews, 219 (7). Springer. doi: 10.1007/s11214-023-00988-6. ISSN 0038-6308.

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Official URL: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11214-023-00988-6


Surface mineralogy records the primary composition, climate history and the geochemical cycling between the surface and atmosphere. We have not yet directly measured mineralogy on the Venus surface in situ, but a variety of independent investigations yield a basic understanding of surface composition and weathering reactions in the present era where rocks react under a supercritical atmosphere dominated by CO2, N2 and SO2 at ∼460 °C and 92 bars. The primary composition of the volcanic plains that cover ∼80% of the surface is inferred to be basaltic, as measured by the 7 Venera and Vega landers and consistent with morphology. These landers also recorded elevated SO3 values, low rock densities and spectral signatures of hematite consistent with chemical weathering under an oxidizing environment. Thermodynamic modeling and laboratory experiments under present day atmospheric conditions predict and demonstrate reactions where Fe, Ca, Na in rocks react primarily with S species to form sulfates, sulfides and oxides. Variations in surface emissivity at ∼1 μm detected by the VIRTIS instrument on the Venus Express orbiter are spatially correlated to geologic terrains. Laboratory measurements of the near-infrared (NIR) emissivity of geologic materials at Venus surface temperatures confirms theoretical predictions that 1 μm emissivity is directly related to Fe2+ content in minerals. These data reveal regions of high emissivity that may indicate unweathered and recently erupted basalts and low emissivity associated with tessera terrain that may indicate felsic materials formed during a more clement era. Magellan radar emissivity also constrain mineralogy as this parameter is inversely related to the type and volume of high dielectric minerals, likely to have formed due to surface/atmosphere reactions. The observation of both viscous and low viscosity volcanic flows in Magellan images may also be related to composition. The global NIR emissivity and high-resolution radar and topography collected by the VERITAS, EnVision and DAVINCI missions will provide a revolutionary advancement of these methods and our understanding of Venus mineralogy. Critically, these datasets must be supported with both laboratory experiments to constrain the style and rate weathering reactions and laboratory measurements of their NIR emissivity and radar characteristics at Venus conditions.

Item URL in elib:https://elib.dlr.de/197440/
Document Type:Article
Title:Mineralogy of the Venus Surface
AuthorsInstitution or Email of AuthorsAuthor's ORCID iDORCID Put Code
Dyar, M. D.planetary science institute, 1700 east fort lowell, tucson, az; dept. of astronomy, mount holyoke college, south hadley, maUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Mueller, NilsFU Berlinhttps://orcid.org/0000-0001-9229-8921UNSPECIFIED
Brossier, JérémyInstitute for Space Astrophysics and Planetology IAPS, National Institute of Astrophysics, Rome, Italyhttps://orcid.org/0000-0001-7423-2494UNSPECIFIED
Santos, AlisonNASA Glenn Research CenterUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Ivanov, MikhailLaboratory of Comparative Planetology, Vernadsky Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry, Russian Academy of Science, 119991 Kosygin street, Moscow, RussiaUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Ghail, RichardRoyal Holloway University of London, Earth Sciences, Egham, United KingdomUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Filiberto, JustinNASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX, USAhttps://orcid.org/0000-0001-5058-1905UNSPECIFIED
Helbert, JörnUNSPECIFIEDhttps://orcid.org/0000-0001-5346-9505UNSPECIFIED
Date:20 September 2023
Journal or Publication Title:Space Science Reviews
Refereed publication:Yes
Open Access:Yes
Gold Open Access:No
In ISI Web of Science:Yes
Keywords:Venus, Mineralogy, Spectroscopy, Laboratory
HGF - Research field:Aeronautics, Space and Transport
HGF - Program:Space
HGF - Program Themes:Space Exploration
DLR - Research area:Raumfahrt
DLR - Program:R EW - Space Exploration
DLR - Research theme (Project):R - Project EnVision - VEM, R - Project VERITAS - VEM
Location: Berlin-Adlershof
Institutes and Institutions:Institute of Planetary Research > Planetary Laboratories
Deposited By: Helbert, Dr.rer.nat. Jörn
Deposited On:22 Sep 2023 15:03
Last Modified:19 Oct 2023 14:50

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