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Functional and Safety Challenges of Hydrogen Fuel Cell Systems for Application in Electrified Regional Aircraft

Kazula, Stefan and Staggat, Martin and de Graaf, Stefanie (2023) Functional and Safety Challenges of Hydrogen Fuel Cell Systems for Application in Electrified Regional Aircraft. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 2536. Institute of Physics (IOP) Publishing. doi: 10.1088/1742-6596/2526/1/012063. ISSN 1742-6588.

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Official URL: https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1742-6596/2526/1/012063


This paper identifies potential weaknesses and challenges of hydrogen fuel cell systems as main energy provider for electrified aircraft propulsion and presents potential solutions. The general design, operating principles and main characteristics of hydrogen-fuelled low-temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell systems (PEMFCSs) are described. The safety assessment process in aviation according to Aerospace Recommended Practices ARP4754A and selected methods according to ARP4761 are introduced. The functions of fuel cell systems in electrified aircraft powertrains are analysed in functional structure trees on aircraft, powertrain and fuel cell system level. By means of a Functional Hazard Analysis (FHA), potential malfunctions and their effects are investigated and their severity is evaluated. Critical failure modes are identified and requirements for acceptable failure probabilities are stipulated. Solution options to mitigate failure effects are stated. The results of the mentioned analyses reveal design challenges associated with the application of fuel cell systems in electrified aircraft propulsion, for instance, concerning functional independence as well as solutions for cold start conditions, heat transfer and lightweight design. Furthermore, safety challenges arise due to the utilisation of cryogenic hydrogen as fuel and the high amount of electric energy.

Item URL in elib:https://elib.dlr.de/195771/
Document Type:Article
Title:Functional and Safety Challenges of Hydrogen Fuel Cell Systems for Application in Electrified Regional Aircraft
AuthorsInstitution or Email of AuthorsAuthor's ORCID iDORCID Put Code
Kazula, StefanUNSPECIFIEDhttps://orcid.org/0000-0002-9050-1292137831983
Staggat, MartinUNSPECIFIEDhttps://orcid.org/0000-0003-4380-0828137831984
de Graaf, StefanieUNSPECIFIEDhttps://orcid.org/0000-0001-7236-651XUNSPECIFIED
Journal or Publication Title:Journal of Physics: Conference Series
Refereed publication:Yes
Open Access:Yes
Gold Open Access:Yes
In ISI Web of Science:No
Publisher:Institute of Physics (IOP) Publishing
Keywords:Electric Aircraft, Fuel Cell Systems, Safety Assessment
HGF - Research field:Aeronautics, Space and Transport
HGF - Program:Aeronautics
HGF - Program Themes:Clean Propulsion
DLR - Research area:Aeronautics
DLR - Program:L CP - Clean Propulsion
DLR - Research theme (Project):L - Components and Emissions
Location: Cottbus
Institutes and Institutions:Institute of Electrified Aero Engines
Deposited By: Kazula, Stefan
Deposited On:30 Jun 2023 14:47
Last Modified:13 Jul 2023 14:51

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