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The Coexistence of Gravity Waves From Diverse Sources During a SOUTHTRAC Flight

Alexander, Peter and de la Torre, Alejandro and Llamedo, P. and Hierro, R. and Marcos, T. and Kaifler, Bernd and Kaifler, Natalie and Geldenhuys, Markus and Preusse, Peter and Giez, Andreas and Rapp, Markus and Hormaechea, J. L. (2023) The Coexistence of Gravity Waves From Diverse Sources During a SOUTHTRAC Flight. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 128 (5), pp. 1-32. Wiley. doi: 10.1029/2022JD037276. ISSN 2169-897X.

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Official URL: https://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2022JD037276


We use observations from one of the SOUTHTRAC (Southern Hemisphere Transport, Dynamics, and Chemistry) Campaign flights in Patagonia and the Antarctic Peninsula during September 2019 to analyze possible sources of gravity waves (GW) in this hotspot during austral late winter and early spring. Data from two of the instruments onboard the German High Altitude and Long Range Research Aircraft (HALO) are employed: the Airborne Lidar for Middle Atmosphere research (ALIMA) and the Basic HALO Measurement and Sensor System (BAHAMAS). The former provides vertical temperature profiles along the trajectory, while the latter gives the three components of velocity, pressure, and temperature at the flight position. GW-induced perturbations are obtained from these observations. We include numerical simulations from the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model to place a four-dimensional context for the GW observed during the flight and to present possible interpretations of the measurements, for example, the orientation or eventual propagation sense of the waves may not be inferred using only data obtained onboard. We first evaluate agreements and discrepancies between the model outcomes and the observations. This allowed us an assessment of the WRF performance in the generation, propagation, and eventual dissipation of diverse types of GW through the troposphere, stratosphere, and lower mesosphere. We then analyze the coexistence and interplay of mountain waves (MW) and non-orographic (NO) GW. The MW dominate above topographic areas and in the direction of the so-called GW belt, whereas the latter waves are mainly relevant above oceanic zones. WRF simulates NOGW as mainly upward propagating entities above the lower stratosphere. Model runs show that deep vertical propagation conditions are in general favorable during this flight but also that in the upper stratosphere and lower mesosphere and mainly above topography there is some potential for wave breaking. The numerical simulations evaluate the GW drag for the whole flight area and find that the strongest effect is located in the zonal component around the stratopause. The general behavior against height resembles that obtained with a local fixed lidar data. According to WRF results, up to 100 km horizontal wavelength MW account for about half of the force opposing the circulation of the atmosphere.

Item URL in elib:https://elib.dlr.de/194066/
Document Type:Article
Title:The Coexistence of Gravity Waves From Diverse Sources During a SOUTHTRAC Flight
AuthorsInstitution or Email of AuthorsAuthor's ORCID iDORCID Put Code
Alexander, PeterCONICET, Ciudad Univ., Buenos Aires, ArgentinienUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
de la Torre, AlejandroUniv. Austral and CONICET, Pilar, ArgentinienUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Llamedo, P.Univ. Austral and CONICET, Pilar, ArgentinienUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Hierro, R.Univ. Austral and CONICET, Pilar, ArgentinienUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Marcos, T.Univ. Austral and CONICET, Pilar, ArgentinienUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Kaifler, BerndDLR, IPAhttps://orcid.org/0000-0002-5891-242XUNSPECIFIED
Kaifler, NatalieDLR, IPAhttps://orcid.org/0000-0002-3118-6480UNSPECIFIED
Geldenhuys, MarkusFZ Jülich, JülichUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Preusse, PeterResearch Center Jülich, IEK7, Jülich, GermanyUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Rapp, MarkusDLR, IPAhttps://orcid.org/0000-0003-1508-5900UNSPECIFIED
Hormaechea, J. L.Univ. Nacional de La Plata and CONICET, ArgentinienUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Date:8 February 2023
Journal or Publication Title:Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres
Refereed publication:Yes
Open Access:Yes
Gold Open Access:No
In ISI Web of Science:Yes
Page Range:pp. 1-32
Keywords:SOUTHTRAC, gravity waves, ALIMA, mountain waves
HGF - Research field:Aeronautics, Space and Transport
HGF - Program:Space
HGF - Program Themes:Earth Observation
DLR - Research area:Raumfahrt
DLR - Program:R EO - Earth Observation
DLR - Research theme (Project):R - Middle Atmosphere
Location: Oberpfaffenhofen
Institutes and Institutions:Institute of Atmospheric Physics
Institute of Atmospheric Physics > Lidar
Flugexperimente > Mess- und Sensortechnik OP
Deposited By: Kaifler, Dr. Natalie
Deposited On:28 Feb 2023 08:04
Last Modified:28 Feb 2023 14:55

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