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The stable climate of KELT-9b

Jones, K. and Morris, B. M. and Demory, B. -O. and Heng, K. and Hooton, M. J. and Billot, N. and Ehrenreich, D. and Hoyer, S. and Simon, A. E. and Lendl, M. and Demangeon, O. D. S. and Sousa, S. G. and Bonfanti, A. and Wilson, T. G. and Salmon, S. and Csizmadia, Sz. and Parviainen, H. and Bruno, G. and Alibert, Y. and Alonso, R. and Anglada Escudé, G. and Bàrczy, T. and Barrado, D. and Barros, S. C. C. and Baumjohann, W. and Beck, M. and Beck, T. and Benz, W. and Bonfils, X. and Brandeker, A. and Broeg, C. and Cabrera, J. and Charnoz, S. and Collier Cameron, A. and Davies, M. B. and Deleuil, M. and Deline, A. and Delrez, L. and Erikson, A. and Fortier, A. and Fossati, L. and Fridlund, M. and Gandolfi, D. and Gillon, M. and Güdel, M. and Isaak, K. G. and Kiss, L. L. and Laskar, J. and Lecavelier des Etangs, A. and Lovis, C. and Magrin, D. and Maxted, P. F. L. and Nascimbeni, V. and Olofsson, G. and Ottensamer, R. and Pagano, I. and Palle, E. and Peter, G. and Piotto, G. and Pollacco, D. and Queloz, D. and Ragazzoni, R. and Rando, N. and Ratti, F. and Rauer, H. and Reimers, C. and Ribas, I. and Santos, N. C. and Scandariato, G. and Segransan, D. and Smith, Alexis M S and Steller, M. and Szabó, Gy. M. and Thomas, N. and Udry, S. and Van Grootel, V. and Walter, I. and Walton, N. A. and Wang Jungo, W. (2022) The stable climate of KELT-9b. Astronomy & Astrophysics, 666, A118. EDP Sciences. doi: 10.1051/0004-6361/202243823. ISSN 0004-6361.

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Official URL: https://www.aanda.org/articles/aa/full_html/2022/10/aa43823-22/aa43823-22.html

Abstract

Even among the most irradiated gas giants, so-called ultra-hot Jupiters, KELT-9b stands out as the hottest planet thus far discovered with a dayside temperature of over 4500 K. At these extreme irradiation levels, we expect an increase in heat redistribution efficiency and a low Bond albedo owed to an extended atmosphere with molecular hydrogen dissociation occurring on the planetary dayside. We present new photometric observations of the KELT-9 system throughout 4 full orbits and 9 separate occultations obtained by the 30 cm space telescope CHEOPS. The CHEOPS bandpass, located at optical wavelengths, captures the peak of the thermal emission spectrum of KELT-9b. In this work we simultaneously analyse CHEOPS phase curves along with public phase curves from TESS and Spitzer to infer joint constraints on the phase curve variation, gravity-darkened transits, and occultation depth in three bandpasses, as well as derive 2D temperature maps of the atmosphere at three different depths. We find a day-night heat redistribution efficiency of ~0.3 which confirms expectations of enhanced energy transfer to the planetary nightside due to dissociation and recombination of molecular hydrogen. We also calculate a Bond albedo consistent with zero. We find no evidence of variability of the brightness temperature of the planet, excluding variability greater than 1%

Item URL in elib:https://elib.dlr.de/189567/
Document Type:Article
Title:The stable climate of KELT-9b
Authors:
AuthorsInstitution or Email of AuthorsAuthor's ORCID iD
Jones, K.Center for Space and Habitability, Gesellsschaftstrasse 6, 3012, Bern, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
Morris, B. M.Center for Space and Habitability, University of Bern, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
Demory, B. -O.Center for Space and Habitability, Gesellsschaftstrasse 6, 3012, Bern, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
Heng, K.Center for Space and Habitability, University of Bern, Gesellschaftsstraße 6, 3012, Bern, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
Hooton, M. J.Physikalisches Institut, University of Bern, Bern, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
Billot, N.Observatoire de Genève, University of Geneva, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
Ehrenreich, D.Observatoire de Genève, University of Geneva, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
Hoyer, S.Aix Marseille Univ, CNRS, CNES, LAM, 38 rue Frédéric Joliot-Curie, 13388 Marseille, Francehttps://orcid.org/0000-0003-3477-2466
Simon, A. E.Physikalisches Institut, University of Bern, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
Lendl, M.Geneva Observatory, University of Geneva, Chemin des Mailettes 51, 1290, Versoix, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
Demangeon, O. D. S.Instituto de Astrofísica e Ciências do Espaço, Universidade do Porto, CAUP, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762, Porto, PortugalUNSPECIFIED
Sousa, S. G.Instituto de Astrofisica e Ciencias do Espaco, Universidade do Porto, CAUP, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto, PortugalUNSPECIFIED
Bonfanti, A.Space Research Institute, Austrian Academy of Sciences, AustriaUNSPECIFIED
Wilson, T. G.School of Physics and Astronomy, St. Andrews, UKhttps://orcid.org/0000-0001-8749-1962
Salmon, S.STAR, Université de Liège, BelgiumUNSPECIFIED
Csizmadia, Sz.szilard.csizmadia (at) dlr.dehttps://orcid.org/0000-0001-6803-9698
Parviainen, H.Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias (IAC), 38205, La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain; Departamento de Astrofisica, Universidad de La Laguna, 38206, La Laguna, Tenerife, SpainUNSPECIFIED
Bruno, G.INAF, Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, Via S. Sofia 78,95123 Catania, ItalyUNSPECIFIED
Alibert, Y.Physikalisches Institut, University of Bern;Observatoire de Besançon, Institut UTINAM, FranceUNSPECIFIED
Alonso, R.Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias (IAC), Via Lactea s/n 38200, La Laguna, SpainUNSPECIFIED
Anglada Escudé, G.Institut de Ciències de l’Espai (ICE, CSIC), Campus UAB, CanMagrans s/n, 08193 Bellaterra, Spain; Institut d’Estudis Espacials de Catalunya (IEEC), 08034 Barcelona,SpainUNSPECIFIED
Bàrczy, T.Admatis, Miskolc, HungaryUNSPECIFIED
Barrado, D.Departamento de Astrofisica, Centro de Astrobiologia (INTA-CSIC), Campus ESAC (ESA)Camino Bajo del Castillo s/n 28692 Villanueva de la Canada, SpainUNSPECIFIED
Barros, S. C. C.Instituto de Astrofisica e Ciencias do Espaco, Universidade do Porto, CAUP, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto, PortugalUNSPECIFIED
Baumjohann, W.Space Research Institute, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Graz, AustriaUNSPECIFIED
Beck, M.Université de Genève, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
Beck, T.Center for Space and Habitability, University of Bern, Gesellschaftsstraße 6, 3012, Bern, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
Benz, W.Physikalisches Institut, Universität Bern, CHUNSPECIFIED
Bonfils, X.Université Grenoble Alpes, FranceUNSPECIFIED
Brandeker, A.Department of Astronomy – Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm, SwedenUNSPECIFIED
Broeg, C.Physikalisches Institut, University of Bern, Bern, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
Cabrera, J.juan.cabrera (at) dlr.dehttps://orcid.org/0000-0001-6653-5487
Charnoz, S.Université de Paris, Institut de physique du globe de Paris, CNRS, 75005, Paris, FranceUNSPECIFIED
Collier Cameron, A.SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St. Andrews, North Haugh, Fife KY16 9SS, UKUNSPECIFIED
Davies, M. B.Lund Observatory, Department of Astronomy and Theoretical Physics, Lund University, 22100, Lund, SwedenUNSPECIFIED
Deleuil, M.Aix Marseille Universite, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d Astrophysique de Marseille) UMR 7326, 13388, Marseille, FranceUNSPECIFIED
Deline, A.Observatoire de Genève, University of Geneva, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
Delrez, L.Institut d Astrophysique et de Geophysique, Universite de Liege, Allee du 6 Aout, 17, Bat. B5C, Liege 1, BelgiumUNSPECIFIED
Erikson, A.anders.erikson (at) dlr.deUNSPECIFIED
Fortier, A.Physikalisches Institut, University of Bern, Bern, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
Fossati, L.Space Research Institute, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Schmiedlstrasse 6, 8042, Graz, AustriaUNSPECIFIED
Fridlund, M.Department of Space, Earth and Environment, Onsala Space Observatory, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-439 92, Onsala, Sweden; Leiden Observatory, University of Leiden, PO Box 9513, 2300 RA, Leiden, The NetherlandsUNSPECIFIED
Gandolfi, D.Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Torino, via Pietro Giuria 1, 10125, Torino, Italyhttps://orcid.org/0000-0001-8627-9628
Gillon, M.Institut d’Astrophysique, Geophysique et Oceanographie, Universite de Liege, B-4000 Liege, BelgiumUNSPECIFIED
Güdel, M.Department of Astrophysics, University of Vienna, Tuerkenschanzstrasse 17, A-1180 Vienna, AustriaUNSPECIFIED
Isaak, K. G.ESA/ESTEC, Noordwijk, NiederlandeUNSPECIFIED
Kiss, L. L.Konkoly Observatory, Research Centre for Astronomy and Earth, Budapest, HungaryUNSPECIFIED
Laskar, J.IMCCE, UMR8028 CNRS, Observatoire de Paris, PSL Univ.,Sorbonne Univ., 77 av. Denfert-Rochereau, 75014 Paris, FranceUNSPECIFIED
Lecavelier des Etangs, A.Institut d Astrophysique de Paris, CNRS, UMR 7095 & Sorbonne Universites, UPMC Paris 6, 98 bis bd Arago, 75014 Paris, FranceUNSPECIFIED
Lovis, C.Geneva Observatory, University of Geneva, Chemin des Mailettes 51, 1290, Versoix, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
Magrin, D.INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell’Osservatorio 5, 35122 Padova, ItalyUNSPECIFIED
Maxted, P. F. L.Astrophysics Group, Keele University, Staffordshire ST5 5BG, UKUNSPECIFIED
Nascimbeni, V.Dipartimento di Fisica ed Astronomia, Universitá degli Studi di Padova, Vicolo dell'Osservatorio 3, 35122 Padova, ItalyUNSPECIFIED
Olofsson, G.Department of Astronomy, Stockholm University, SwedenUNSPECIFIED
Ottensamer, R.University of Vienna, Department of Astrophysics, AustriaUNSPECIFIED
Pagano, I.INAF – Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, Via S.Sofia 78, 95123 Catania, ItalyUNSPECIFIED
Palle, E.Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, 38205 La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain | Departamento de Astrofisica, Universidad de La Laguna, 38206 La Laguna, SpainUNSPECIFIED
Peter, G.Gisbert.Peter (at) dlr.dehttps://orcid.org/0000-0001-6101-2513
Piotto, G.INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, vicolo dell Osservatorio 5, 35122 Padova, ItalyUNSPECIFIED
Pollacco, D.Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL, UKUNSPECIFIED
Queloz, D.Cavendish Laboratory, J J Thomson Avenue, Cambridge, CB3 0HE, UKUNSPECIFIED
Ragazzoni, R.INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell’Osservatorio 5, 35122 Padova, ItalyUNSPECIFIED
Rando, N.ESA/ESTEC, Noordwijk, NiederlandeUNSPECIFIED
Ratti, F.ESA/ESTEC, Noordwijk, NiederlandeUNSPECIFIED
Rauer, H.heike.rauer (at) dlr.deUNSPECIFIED
Reimers, C.Department of Astrophysics, University of Vienna, Tuerkenschanzs-trasse 17, 1180 Vienna, AustriaUNSPECIFIED
Ribas, I.Institut de Ciencies de l Espai (CSIC-IEEC), Carrer de Can Magrans, Campus UAB, E-08193 Bellaterra, SpainUNSPECIFIED
Santos, N. C.Instituto de Astrofisica e Ciencias do Espaco, Universidade do Porto, CAUP, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto, Portugal; Departamento de Fisica e Astronomia, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade do Porto, Rua Campo Alegre, 4169-007 Porto, PortugalUNSPECIFIED
Scandariato, G.NAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo, Piazza del Parlamento 1, 90134 Palermo, ItalyUNSPECIFIED
Segransan, D.Observatoire de Geneve, Universite de Geneve, 51 Chemin des Maillettes, 1290 Sauverny, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
Smith, Alexis M SAlexis.Smith (at) dlr.dehttps://orcid.org/0000-0002-2386-4341
Steller, M.Space Research Institute, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Schmiedlstrasse 6, 8042, Graz, AustriaUNSPECIFIED
Szabó, Gy. M.ELTE Eötvös Loránd University, Gothard Astrophysical Observatory, 9700, Szombathely, Szent Imre h. u. 112, Hungary ; MTA-ELTE Exoplanet Research Group, 9700, Szombathely, Szent Imre h. u. 112, HungaryUNSPECIFIED
Thomas, N.Physikalisches Institut, University of Bern, Gesellsschaftstrasse 6, 3012, Bern, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
Udry, S.Observatoire de Genève, Sauverny, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
Van Grootel, V.STAR, Université de Liège, BelgiumUNSPECIFIED
Walter, I.ingo.walter (at) dlr.deUNSPECIFIED
Walton, N. A.Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UKUNSPECIFIED
Wang Jungo, W.Center for Space and Habitability, University of Bern, Gesellschaftsstrasse 6, 3012, Bern, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
Date:2022
Journal or Publication Title:Astronomy & Astrophysics
Refereed publication:Yes
Open Access:Yes
Gold Open Access:No
In SCOPUS:Yes
In ISI Web of Science:Yes
Volume:666
DOI:10.1051/0004-6361/202243823
Page Range:A118
Publisher:EDP Sciences
ISSN:0004-6361
Status:Published
Keywords:techniques: photometric, instrumentation: photometers, planets and satellites: atmospheres, planets and satellites: gaseous planets, eclipses, occultations, Astrophysics - Earth and Planetary Astrophysics
HGF - Research field:Aeronautics, Space and Transport
HGF - Program:Space
HGF - Program Themes:Space Exploration
DLR - Research area:Raumfahrt
DLR - Program:R EW - Space Exploration
DLR - Research theme (Project):R - CHEOPS Science, R - Project CHEOPS
Location: Berlin-Adlershof
Institutes and Institutions:Institute of Planetary Research > Extrasolar Planets and Atmospheres
Institute of Planetary Research > Leitungsbereich PF
Institute of Optical Sensor Systems > Space Instruments
Deposited By: Smith, Dr Alexis M S
Deposited On:03 Nov 2022 10:39
Last Modified:03 Nov 2022 10:39

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