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Euglena, a Gravitactic Flagellate of Multiple Usages

Häder, Donald-P. and Hemmersbach, Ruth (2022) Euglena, a Gravitactic Flagellate of Multiple Usages. Life, 12 (10), p. 1522. Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI). doi: 10.3390/life12101522. ISSN 2075-1729.

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Official URL: https://www.mdpi.com/2075-1729/12/10/1522

Abstract

Human exploration of space and other celestial bodies bears a multitude of challenges. The Earth-bound supply of material and food is restricted, and in situ resource utilisation (ISRU) is a prerequisite. Excellent candidates for delivering several services are unicellular algae, such as the space-approved flagellate Euglena gracilis. This review summarizes the main characteristics of this unicellular organism. Euglena has been exposed on various platforms that alter the impact of gravity to analyse its corresponding gravity-dependent physiological and molecular genetic responses. The sensory transduction chain of gravitaxis in E. gracilis has been identified. The molecular gravi- (mechano-)receptors are mechanosensory calcium channels (TRP channels). The inward gated calcium binds specifically to one of several calmodulins (CaM.2), which, in turn, activates an adenylyl cyclase. This enzyme uses ATP to produce cAMP, which induces protein kinase A, followed by the phosphorylation of a motor protein in the flagellum, initiating a course correction, and, finally, resulting in gravitaxis. During long space missions, a considerable amount of food, oxygen, and water has to be carried, and the exhaled carbon dioxide has to be removed. In this context, E. gracilis is an excellent candidate for biological life support systems, since it produces oxygen by photosynthesis, takes up carbon dioxide, and is even edible. Various species and mutants of Euglena are utilized as a producer of commercial food items, as well as a source of medicines, as it produces a number of vitamins, contains numerous trace elements, and synthesizes dietary proteins, lipids, and the reserve molecule paramylon. Euglena has anti-inflammatory, -oxidant, and -obesity properties.

Item URL in elib:https://elib.dlr.de/189003/
Document Type:Article
Title:Euglena, a Gravitactic Flagellate of Multiple Usages
Authors:
AuthorsInstitution or Email of AuthorsAuthor's ORCID iDORCID Put Code
Häder, Donald-P.Emeritus from Friedrich-Alexander-Universität, Institut für Botanik, Erlangen, GermanyUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Hemmersbach, RuthGerman Aerospace Center (DLR), Institute of Aerospace Medicine, Gravitational Biology, Cologne (Köln), Germanyhttps://orcid.org/0000-0001-5308-6715UNSPECIFIED
Date:29 September 2022
Journal or Publication Title:Life
Refereed publication:Yes
Open Access:Yes
Gold Open Access:Yes
In SCOPUS:Yes
In ISI Web of Science:Yes
Volume:12
DOI:10.3390/life12101522
Page Range:p. 1522
Publisher:Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI)
Series Name:Special Issue Gravitational Microbiology Research and Applications
ISSN:2075-1729
Status:Published
Keywords:Euglena, flagellate, graviperception, gravitaxis, gravitational biology, regenerative life support system, in situ resource utilization, lunar habitat, Mars exploration
HGF - Research field:Aeronautics, Space and Transport
HGF - Program:Space
HGF - Program Themes:Research under Space Conditions
DLR - Research area:Raumfahrt
DLR - Program:R FR - Research under Space Conditions
DLR - Research theme (Project):R - Gravisensorics
Location: Köln-Porz
Institutes and Institutions:Institute of Aerospace Medicine > Gravitational Biology
Deposited By: Chiodo, Annette
Deposited On:19 Oct 2022 09:44
Last Modified:17 Nov 2022 11:02

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