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Airborne Coherent GNSS Reflectometry and Zenith Total Delay Estimation over Coastal Waters

Moreno Bulla, Mario Andres and Semmling, Maximilian and Stienne, Georges and Dalil, Wafa and Hoque, Mohammed Mainul and Wickert, Jens and Reboul, Serge (2022) Airborne Coherent GNSS Reflectometry and Zenith Total Delay Estimation over Coastal Waters. Remote Sensing, 14 (18). Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI). doi: 10.3390/rs14184628. ISSN 2072-4292.

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Official URL: https://www.mdpi.com/2072-4292/14/18/4628

Abstract

High-precision GNSS (global navigation satellite e system) measurements can be used for remote sensing and nowadays play a significant role in atmospheric sounding (station data, radio occultation observations) and sea surface altimetry based on reflectometry. A limiting factor of high-precision reflectometry is the loss of coherent phase information due to sea-state-induced surface roughness. This work studies airborne reflectometry observations recorded over coastal waters to examine the sea-state influence on Doppler distribution and the coherent residual phase retrieval. From coherent observations, the possibility of zenith total delay inversion is also investigated, considering the hydrostatic mapping factor from the Vienna mapping function and an exponential vertical decay factor depending on height receiver changes. The experiment consists of multiple flights performed along the coast between the cities of Calais and Boulogne-sur-Mer, France, in July 2019. Reflected signals acquired in a right-handed circular polarization are processed through a model-aided software receiver and passed through a retracking module to obtain the Doppler and phase-corrected signal. Results from grazing angle observations (elevation < 15°) show a high sensitivity of Doppler spread with respect to sea state with correlations of 0.75 and 0.88 with significant wave height and wind speed, respectively. An empirical Doppler spread threshold of 0.5 Hz is established for coherent reflections supported by the residual phase observations obtained. Phase coherence occurs in 15% of the observations; however, the estimated zenith total delay for the best event corresponds to 2.44 m, which differs from the typical zenith total delay (2.3 m) of 5%.

Item URL in elib:https://elib.dlr.de/188804/
Document Type:Article
Title:Airborne Coherent GNSS Reflectometry and Zenith Total Delay Estimation over Coastal Waters
Authors:
AuthorsInstitution or Email of AuthorsAuthor's ORCID iD
Moreno Bulla, Mario Andresmario.moreno (at) dlr.deUNSPECIFIED
Semmling, MaximilianMaximilian.Semmling (at) dlr.deUNSPECIFIED
Stienne, Georgesgeorges.stienne (at) univ-littoral.frUNSPECIFIED
Dalil, Wafawafa.dalil.elv (at) eilco-ulco.frUNSPECIFIED
Hoque, Mohammed MainulMainul.Hoque (at) dlr.deUNSPECIFIED
Wickert, Jenswickert (at) gfz-potsdam.deUNSPECIFIED
Reboul, Sergeserge.reboul (at) univ-littoral.frUNSPECIFIED
Date:16 September 2022
Journal or Publication Title:Remote Sensing
Refereed publication:Yes
Open Access:Yes
Gold Open Access:Yes
In SCOPUS:Yes
In ISI Web of Science:Yes
Volume:14
DOI:10.3390/rs14184628
Editors:
EditorsEmailEditor's ORCID iD
Jin, Shuanggensgjin@shao.ac.cnUNSPECIFIED
Demyanov, Vladislavsword1971@yandex.ruUNSPECIFIED
Publisher:Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI)
Series Name:GNSS High Rate Data for Research of the Ionosphere
ISSN:2072-4292
Status:Published
Keywords:GNSS reflectometry; sea state; Doppler spreading; zenith total delay; coastal zones
HGF - Research field:Aeronautics, Space and Transport
HGF - Program:Space
HGF - Program Themes:Communication, Navigation, Quantum Technology
DLR - Research area:Raumfahrt
DLR - Program:R KNQ - Communication, Navigation, Quantum Technology
DLR - Research theme (Project):R - Ionosphere
Location: Neustrelitz
Institutes and Institutions:Institute for Solar-Terrestrial Physics > Space Weather Observation
Deposited By: Moreno Bulla, Mario Andres
Deposited On:14 Oct 2022 12:20
Last Modified:14 Oct 2022 12:20

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