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Safety Considerations of Hydrogen Application in Shipping in Comparison to LNG

Depken, Jorgen Johannes and Dyck, Alexander and Roß, Lukas and Ehlers, Sören (2022) Safety Considerations of Hydrogen Application in Shipping in Comparison to LNG. Energies, 15 (9). Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI). doi: 10.3390/en15093250. ISSN 1996-1073.

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Official URL: https://www.mdpi.com/1996-1073/15/9/3250


Shipping accounts for about 3% of global CO2 emissions. In order to achieve the target set by the Paris Agreement, IMO introduced their GHG strategy. This strategy envisages 50% emission reduction from international shipping by 2050, compared with 2008. This target cannot be fulfilled if conventional fuels are used. Amongst others, hydrogen is considered to be one of the strong candidates as a zero-emissions fuel. Yet, concerns around the safety of its storage and usage have been formulated and need to be addressed. Safety, in this article, is defined as the control of recognized hazards to achieve an acceptable level of risk. This article aims to propose a new way of comparing two systems with regard to their safety. Since safety cannot be directly measured, fuzzy set theory is used to compare linguistic terms such as safer. This method is proposed to be used during the alternative design approach. This approach is necessary for deviations from IMO rules, for example, when hydrogen should be used in shipping. Additionally, the properties of hydrogen that can pose a hazard, such as its wide flammability range, are identified.

Item URL in elib:https://elib.dlr.de/186269/
Document Type:Article
Title:Safety Considerations of Hydrogen Application in Shipping in Comparison to LNG
AuthorsInstitution or Email of AuthorsAuthor's ORCID iDORCID Put Code
Depken, Jorgen JohannesUNSPECIFIEDhttps://orcid.org/0000-0001-5413-4627UNSPECIFIED
Dyck, AlexanderUNSPECIFIEDhttps://orcid.org/0000-0002-5010-8226UNSPECIFIED
Roß, LukasUNSPECIFIEDhttps://orcid.org/0000-0002-1641-9469UNSPECIFIED
Ehlers, SörenUNSPECIFIEDhttps://orcid.org/0000-0001-5698-9354UNSPECIFIED
Date:28 April 2022
Journal or Publication Title:Energies
Refereed publication:Yes
Open Access:Yes
Gold Open Access:Yes
In ISI Web of Science:Yes
EditorsEmailEditor's ORCID iDORCID Put Code
Gosala, Dheeraj BUNSPECIFIEDhttps://orcid.org/0000-0002-4098-1603UNSPECIFIED
Publisher:Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI)
Keywords:shipping; hydrogen; storage; safety; hazard; rules; regulation; fuzzy set theory
HGF - Research field:Aeronautics, Space and Transport
HGF - Program:Transport
HGF - Program Themes:Transport System
DLR - Research area:Transport
DLR - Program:V VS - Verkehrssystem
DLR - Research theme (Project):V - FuturePorts
Location: Geesthacht , Oldenburg
Institutes and Institutions:Institute of Maritime Energy Systems
Institute of Maritime Energy Systems > Department Energy Infrastructures
Institute of Networked Energy Systems
Institute of Networked Energy Systems > Urban and Residential Technologies
Deposited By: Depken, Jorgen Johannes
Deposited On:29 Apr 2022 13:09
Last Modified:12 Sep 2022 08:48

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