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Investigating the architecture and internal structure of the TOI-561 system planets with CHEOPS, HARPS-N, and TESS

Lacedelli, G. and Wilson, T. G. and Malavolta, L. and Hooton, M. J. and Collier Cameron, A. and Alibert, Y. and Mortier, A. and Bonfanti, A. and Haywood, R. D. and Hoyer, S. and Piotto, G. and Bekkelien, A. and Vanderburg, A. M. and Benz, W. and Dumusque, X. and Deline, A. and López-Morales, M. and Borsato, L. and Rice, K. and Fossati, L. and Latham, D. W. and Brandeker, A. and Poretti, E. and Sousa, S. G. and Sozzetti, A. and Salmon, S. and Burke, C. J. and Van Grootel, V. and Fausnaugh, M. M. and Adibekyan, V. and Huang, C. X. and Osborn, H. P. and Mustill, A. J. and Palle, E. and Bourrier, V. and Nascimbeni, V. and Alonso, R. and Anglada Escudé, G. and Bàrczy, T. and Barrado y Navascués, D. and Barros, S. C. C. and Baumjohann, W. and Beck, M. and Beck, T. and Billot, N. and Bonfils, X. and Broeg, C. and Buchhave, L. A. and Cabrera, J. and Charnoz, S. and Cosentino, R. and Csizmadia, Szilard and Davies, M. B. and Deleuil, M. and Delrez, L. and Demangeon, O. and Demory, B. O. and Ehrenreich, D. and Erikson, A. and Esparza-Borges, E. and Floren, H. G. and Fortier, A. and Fridlund, M. and Futyan, D. and Gandolfi, D. and Ghedina, A. and Gillon, M. and Güdel, M. and Guterman, P. and Harutyunyan, A. and Heng, K. and Isaak, K. G. and Jenkins, J. M. and Kiss, L. and Laskar, J. and Lecavelier des Etangs, A. and Lendl, M. and Lovis, C. and Magrin, D. and Marafatto, L. and Martinez Fiorenzano, A. F. and Maxted, P. F. L. and Mayor, M. and Micela, G. and Molinari, E. and Murgas, F. and Narita, N. and Olofsson, G. and Ottensamer, R. and Pagano, I. and Pasetti, A. and Pedani, M. and Pepe, F. and Peter, G. and Phillips, D. F. and Pollacco, D. and Queloz, D. and Ragazzoni, R. and Rando, N. and Ratti, F. and Rauer, H. and Ribas, I. and Santos, N. C. and Sasselov, D. and Scandariato, G. and Seager, S. and Segransan, D. and Serrano, L. M. and Simon, A. E. and Smith, Alexis M S and Steinberger, M. and Steller, M. and Szabo, Gy. M. and Thomas, N. and Twicken, J. D. and Udry, S. and Walton, N. A. and Winn, J. N. (2022) Investigating the architecture and internal structure of the TOI-561 system planets with CHEOPS, HARPS-N, and TESS. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 511 (3), pp. 4551-4571. Oxford University Press. doi: 10.1093/mnras/stac199. ISSN 0035-8711.

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Official URL: https://academic.oup.com/mnras/article/511/3/4551/6516986

Abstract

We present a precise characterization of the TOI-561 planetary system obtained by combining previously published data with TESS and CHEOPS photometry, and a new set of 62 HARPS-N radial velocities (RVs). Our joint analysis confirms the presence of four transiting planets, namely TOI-561 b (P = 0.45 d, R = 1.42 R⊕, M = 2.0 M⊕), c (P = 10.78 d, R = 2.91 R⊕, M = 5.4 M⊕), d (P = 25.7 d, R = 2.82 R⊕, M = 13.2 M⊕), and e (P = 77 d, R = 2.55 R⊕, M = 12.6 R⊕). Moreover, we identify an additional, long-period signal (>450 d) in the RVs, which could be due to either an external planetary companion or to stellar magnetic activity. The precise masses and radii obtained for the four planets allowed us to conduct interior structure and atmospheric escape modelling. TOI-561 b is confirmed to be the lowest density (ρb = 3.8 ± 0.5 g cm-3) ultra-short period (USP) planet known to date, and the low metallicity of the host star makes it consistent with the general bulk density-stellar metallicity trend. According to our interior structure modelling, planet b has basically no gas envelope, and it could host a certain amount of water. In contrast, TOI-561 c, d, and e likely retained an H/He envelope, in addition to a possibly large water layer. The inferred planetary compositions suggest different atmospheric evolutionary paths, with planets b and c having experienced significant gas loss, and planets d and e showing an atmospheric content consistent with the original one. The uniqueness of the USP planet, the presence of the long-period planet TOI-561 e, and the complex architecture make this system an appealing target for follow-up studies.

Item URL in elib:https://elib.dlr.de/185752/
Document Type:Article
Title:Investigating the architecture and internal structure of the TOI-561 system planets with CHEOPS, HARPS-N, and TESS
Authors:
AuthorsInstitution or Email of AuthorsAuthor's ORCID iD
Lacedelli, G.Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia "Galileo Galilei", Universià degli Studi di Padova, Vicolo dell'Osservatorio 3, 35122, Padova, Italy; INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell'Osservatorio 5, 35122, Padova, ItalyUNSPECIFIED
Wilson, T. G.School of Physics and Astronomy, St. Andrews, UKUNSPECIFIED
Malavolta, L.INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Padova, ItalyUNSPECIFIED
Hooton, M. J.Physikalisches Institut, University of Bern, Bern, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
Collier Cameron, A.University of St. Andrews, St. Andrews, UKUNSPECIFIED
Alibert, Y.University of Bern, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
Mortier, A.Astrophysics Group, Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, J.J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE, UK; Kavli Institute for Cosmology, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA, UKUNSPECIFIED
Bonfanti, A.Space Research Institute, Austrian Academy of Sciences, AustriaUNSPECIFIED
Haywood, R. D.Astrophysics Group, University of Exeter, Exeter EX4 2QL, UKUNSPECIFIED
Hoyer, S.Laboratoire d’Astrophysique de Marseille, Univ. de Provence, FranceUNSPECIFIED
Piotto, G.INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, vicolo dell Osservatorio 5, 35122 Padova, ItalyUNSPECIFIED
Bekkelien, A.Observatoire de Genève, University of Geneva, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
Vanderburg, A. M.Department of Physics and Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA; Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706, USAUNSPECIFIED
Benz, W.Physics Institute, Space Research & Planetary Sciences, University of Bern, Sidlerstr. 5, CH-3012 Bern, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
Dumusque, X.Geneva Observatory, University of Geneva, Chemin des Mailettes 51, 1290 Versoix, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
Deline, A.Observatoire de Genève, University of Geneva, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
López-Morales, M.Center for Astrophysics | Harvard and Smithsonian, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138, USAUNSPECIFIED
Borsato, L.Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita degli Studi di Padova, via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova, ItalyUNSPECIFIED
Rice, K.SUPA, Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, Scotland, UK; Centre for Exoplanet Science, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH93FD, UKUNSPECIFIED
Fossati, L.Space Research Institute, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Schmiedlstrasse 6, 8042, Graz, AustriaUNSPECIFIED
Latham, D. W.Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St, Cambridge, MA 02138, USAUNSPECIFIED
Brandeker, A.Department of Astronomy – Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm, SwedenUNSPECIFIED
Poretti, E.INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, Merate, ItalyUNSPECIFIED
Sousa, S. G.Instituto de Astrofisica e Ciencias do Espaco, Universidade do Porto, CAUP, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto, PortugalUNSPECIFIED
Sozzetti, A.INAF – Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino, via Osservatorio 20,10025 Pino Torinese, ItalyUNSPECIFIED
Salmon, S.STAR, Université de Liège, BelgiumUNSPECIFIED
Burke, C. J.Department of Physics and Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USAUNSPECIFIED
Van Grootel, V.STAR, Université de Liège, BelgiumUNSPECIFIED
Fausnaugh, M. M.Department of Physics and Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USAUNSPECIFIED
Adibekyan, V.Instituto de Astrofisica e Ciencias do Espaco, Universidade do Porto, CAUP, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto, PortugalUNSPECIFIED
Huang, C. X.Department of Physics and Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA; University of Southern Queensland, Centre for Astrophysics, West Street, Toowoomba, QLD 4350 AustraliaUNSPECIFIED
Osborn, H. P.NCCR/PlanetS, Centre for Space & Habitability, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland; Department of Physics and Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USAUNSPECIFIED
Mustill, A. J.Lund Observatory, Department of Astronomy and Theoretical Physics, Lund University, 22100, Lund, SwedenUNSPECIFIED
Palle, E.Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias (IAC), 38205, La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain; Departamento de Astrofisica, Universidad de La Laguna (ULL), 38206, La Laguna, Tenerife, SpainUNSPECIFIED
Bourrier, V.Université de Genève, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
Nascimbeni, V.NAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell’Osservatorio 5, Padova, IT-35122, ItalyUNSPECIFIED
Alonso, R.Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias (IAC), Via Lactea s/n 38200, La Laguna, SpainUNSPECIFIED
Anglada Escudé, G.Institut de Ciències de l’Espai (ICE, CSIC), Campus UAB, CanMagrans s/n, 08193 Bellaterra, Spain; Institut d’Estudis Espacials de Catalunya (IEEC), 08034 Barcelona,SpainUNSPECIFIED
Bàrczy, T.Admatis, Miskolc, HungaryUNSPECIFIED
Barrado y Navascués, D.Depto. de Astrofisica, Centro de Astrobiologia (CSIC-INTA), ESAC campus, E-28692 Villanueva de la Cañada (Madrid), SpainUNSPECIFIED
Barros, S. C. C.Instituto de Astrofisica e Ciencias do Espaco, Universidade do Porto, CAUP, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto, PortugalUNSPECIFIED
Baumjohann, W.Space Research Institute, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Graz, AustriaUNSPECIFIED
Beck, M.Université de Genève, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
Beck, T.Center for Space and Habitability, University of Bern, Gesellschaftsstraße 6, 3012, Bern, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
Billot, N.Université de Genève, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
Bonfils, X.Université Grenoble Alpes, FranceUNSPECIFIED
Broeg, C.Physikalisches Institut, University of Bern, Bern, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
Buchhave, L. A.DTU Space, National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Elektrovej 328, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby, DenmarkUNSPECIFIED
Cabrera, J.juan.cabrera (at) dlr.deUNSPECIFIED
Charnoz, S.Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris, FranceUNSPECIFIED
Cosentino, R.INAF-Fundacion Galileo Galilei, Rambla Jose Ana Fernandez Perez 7, 38712 -Brena Baja, SpainUNSPECIFIED
Csizmadia, Szilardszilard.csizmadia (at) dlr.deUNSPECIFIED
Davies, M. B.Lund Observatory, Department of Astronomy and Theoretical Physics, Lund University, 22100, Lund, SwedenUNSPECIFIED
Deleuil, M.Aix Marseille Universite, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d Astrophysique de Marseille) UMR 7326, 13388, Marseille, FranceUNSPECIFIED
Delrez, L.Institut d Astrophysique et de Geophysique, Universite de LiegeUNSPECIFIED
Demangeon, O.Instituto de Astrofisica e Ciencias do Espaco, Universidade do Porto, CAUP, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto, PortugalUNSPECIFIED
Demory, B. O.Center for Space and Habitability, University of Bern, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
Ehrenreich, D.Observatoire de Genève, University of Geneva, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
Erikson, A.anders.erikson (at) dlr.deUNSPECIFIED
Esparza-Borges, E.Departamento de Astrofísica, Universidad de La Laguna, E-38206 La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain; Departamento de Astrofísica, Universidad de La Laguna, E-38206 La Laguna, Tenerife, SpainUNSPECIFIED
Floren, H. G.Department of Astronomy, Stockholm University, AlbaNova University Center, 10691 Stockholm, SwedenUNSPECIFIED
Fortier, A.Physikalisches Institut, University of Bern, Bern, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
Fridlund, M.Department of Space, Earth and Environment, Chalmers University of Technology, Onsala Space Observatory, 439 92, Onsala, Sweden; Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, 2333CA, Leiden, The NetherlandsUNSPECIFIED
Futyan, D.Observatoire de Genève, University of Geneva, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
Gandolfi, D.Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Torino, via P. Giuria 1, I-10125 Torino, ItalyUNSPECIFIED
Ghedina, A.Fundación Galileo Galilei - INAF, Rambla J. A. F. Perez, 7, E-38712 S.C. Tenerife, SpainUNSPECIFIED
Gillon, M.Institut d'Astrophysique et de Géophysique, Universitée de Liège, Allée du 6 août 17, B-4000 Liège, BelgiumUNSPECIFIED
Güdel, M.Department of Astrophysics, University of Vienna, Tuerkenschanzstrasse 17, A-1180 Vienna, AustriaUNSPECIFIED
Guterman, P.Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille, FranceUNSPECIFIED
Harutyunyan, A.INAF-Fundacion Galileo Galilei, Rambla Jose Ana Fernandez Perez 7, 38712 -Brena Baja, SpainUNSPECIFIED
Heng, K.Center for Space and Habitability, University of Bern, Gesellschaftsstraße 6, 3012, Bern, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
Isaak, K. G.ESA/ESTEC, Noordwijk, NiederlandeUNSPECIFIED
Jenkins, J. M.NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA, 94035, USAUNSPECIFIED
Kiss, L.Konkoly Observatory, Research Centre for Astronomy and Earth, Budapest, HungaryUNSPECIFIED
Laskar, J.IMCCE, UMR8028 CNRS, Observatoire de Paris, PSL Univ.,Sorbonne Univ., 77 av. Denfert-Rochereau, 75014 Paris, FranceUNSPECIFIED
Lecavelier des Etangs, A.Institut d Astrophysique de Paris, CNRS, UMR 7095 & Sorbonne Universites, UPMC Paris 6, 98 bis bd Arago, 75014 Paris, FranceUNSPECIFIED
Lendl, M.Geneva Observatory, University of Geneva, Chemin des Mailettes 51, 1290, Versoix, Switzerland; Space Research Institute, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Schmiedlstr. 6, 8042, Graz, AustriaUNSPECIFIED
Lovis, C.Observatoire de l Universite de Geneve, 51 chemin des Maillettes, 1290 Sauverny, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
Magrin, D.INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell’Osservatorio 5, 35122 Padova, ItalyUNSPECIFIED
Marafatto, L.INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell'Osservatorio 5, 35122 Padova, ItalyUNSPECIFIED
Martinez Fiorenzano, A. F.Fundación Galileo Galilei - INAF, Rambla J. A. F. Perez, 7, E-38712 S.C. Tenerife, SpainUNSPECIFIED
Maxted, P. F. L.Astrophysics Group, Keele University, Staffordshire ST5 5BG, UKUNSPECIFIED
Mayor, M.Observatoire de GenèveUNSPECIFIED
Micela, G.INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo, ItalyUNSPECIFIED
Molinari, E.INAF-Fundacion Galileo Galilei, Rambla Jose Ana Fernandez Perez 7, 38712 -Brena Baja, SpainUNSPECIFIED
Murgas, F.Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias (IAC), 38205, La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain; Departamento de Astrofisica, Universidad de La Laguna, 38206, La Laguna, Tenerife, SpainUNSPECIFIED
Narita, N.Astrobiology Center and National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, NINS, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo, 181-8588, Japan; Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo, 152-8551, Japan; InstitutUNSPECIFIED
Olofsson, G.Department of Astronomy, Stockholm University, AlbaNova University Center, 10691 Stockholm, SwedenUNSPECIFIED
Ottensamer, R.Dept. of Astrophysics, University of Vienna, AustriaUNSPECIFIED
Pagano, I.INAF – Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, Via S.Sofia 78, 95123 Catania, ItalyUNSPECIFIED
Pasetti, A.P&P Software GmbH, High Tech Center, Taegerwilen, CH-8274, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
Pedani, M.INAF-Fundacion Galileo Galilei, Rambla Jose Ana Fernandez Perez 7, 38712 -Brena Baja, SpainUNSPECIFIED
Pepe, F.Geneva Observatory, University of Geneva, Chemin des Mailettes 51, 1290, Versoix, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
Peter, G.Gisbert.Peter (at) dlr.deUNSPECIFIED
Phillips, D. F.Center for Astrophysics | Harvard and Smithsonian, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138, USAUNSPECIFIED
Pollacco, D.Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Gibbet Hill Road, Coventry, CV4 7AL, UK; Centre for Exoplanets and Habitability, University of Warwick, Gibbet Hill Road, Coventry, CV4 7AL, UKUNSPECIFIED
Queloz, D.Cavendish Laboratory, J J Thomson Avenue, Cambridge, CB3 0HE, UKUNSPECIFIED
Ragazzoni, R.INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell’Osservatorio 5, 35122 Padova, ItalyUNSPECIFIED
Rando, N.ESA/ESTEC, Noordwijk, NiederlandeUNSPECIFIED
Ratti, F.ESA/ESTEC, NiederlandeUNSPECIFIED
Rauer, H.Heike.Rauer (at) dlr.deUNSPECIFIED
Ribas, I.Institute d´Estudis Espacials de Catalunya and Instituto de Ciencias des Espacio, Barcelona, SpainUNSPECIFIED
Santos, N. C.Instituto de Astrofisica e Ciencias do Espaco, Universidade do Porto, CAUP, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto, Portugal; Departamento de Fisica e Astronomia, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade do Porto, Rua Campo Alegre, 4169-007 Porto, PortugalUNSPECIFIED
Sasselov, D.Center for Astrophysics | Harvard and Smithsonian, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138, USAUNSPECIFIED
Scandariato, G.INAF, Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, Via S. Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, ItalyUNSPECIFIED
Seager, S.Department of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences, MIT, Cambridge, MA, 02139, USA; Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, MIT, Cambridge, MA, 0213UNSPECIFIED
Segransan, D.Observatoire de Geneve, Universite de Geneve, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
Serrano, L. M.Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Torino, via Pietro Giuria 1, I-10125, Torino, ItalyUNSPECIFIED
Simon, A. E.Center for Space and Habitability, University of Bern, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
Smith, Alexis M SAlexis.Smith (at) dlr.dehttps://orcid.org/0000-0002-2386-4341
Steinberger, M.Space Research Institute, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Schmiedlstrasse 6, A-8042 Graz, AustriaUNSPECIFIED
Steller, M.Space Research Institute, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Schmiedlstrasse 6, A-8042 Graz, AustriaUNSPECIFIED
Szabo, Gy. M.Department of Experimental Physics & Astronomical Observatory, Szedeg, HungaryUNSPECIFIED
Thomas, N.Physikalisches Institut, Universität Bern, CHUNSPECIFIED
Twicken, J. D.NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035, USA; SETI Institute, Mountain View, CA 94043, USAUNSPECIFIED
Udry, S.Department of Astronomy, University of Geneva, Chemin Pegasi 51, Versoix, CH-1290, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
Walton, N. A.Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UKUNSPECIFIED
Winn, J. N.Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, 4 Ivy Lane, Princeton, NJ, 08544, USA)UNSPECIFIED
Date:2022
Journal or Publication Title:Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Refereed publication:Yes
Open Access:No
Gold Open Access:No
In SCOPUS:Yes
In ISI Web of Science:Yes
Volume:511
DOI :10.1093/mnras/stac199
Page Range:pp. 4551-4571
Publisher:Oxford University Press
ISSN:0035-8711
Status:Published
Keywords:techniques: photometric, techniques: radial velocities, planets and satellites: fundamental parameters, planets and satellites: interiors, stars: individual: TOI-561 (TIC 377064495, Gaia EDR3 3850421005290172416), Astrophysics - Earth and Planetary Astrophysics
HGF - Research field:Aeronautics, Space and Transport
HGF - Program:Space
HGF - Program Themes:Space Exploration
DLR - Research area:Raumfahrt
DLR - Program:R EW - Space Exploration
DLR - Research theme (Project):R - CHEOPS Science, R - Project CHEOPS
Location: Berlin-Adlershof
Institutes and Institutions:Institute of Planetary Research > Extrasolar Planets and Atmospheres
Institute of Optical Sensor Systems
Institute of Planetary Research > Leitungsbereich PF
Deposited By: Smith, Dr Alexis M S
Deposited On:25 Mar 2022 08:45
Last Modified:25 Mar 2022 08:45

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