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Revelations on Jupiter's formation, evolution and interior: Challenges from Juno results

Helled, Ravit and Stevenson, David and Lunine, J. I. and Bolton, S. and Nettelmann, Nadine and Atreya, S and Guillot, T and Militzer, B and Miguel, Y. and Hubbard, W.B. (2022) Revelations on Jupiter's formation, evolution and interior: Challenges from Juno results. Icarus: International Journal of Solar System Studies. Elsevier. doi: 10.1016/j.icarus.2022.114937. ISSN 0019-1035.

[img] PDF - Postprint version (accepted manuscript)

Official URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0019103522000586


The Juno mission has revolutionized and challenged our understanding of Jupiter. As Juno transitions to its extended mission, we review the major findings of Jupiter's internal structure relevant to understanding Jupiter's formation and evolution. Results from Juno's investigation of Jupiter's interior structure imply that the planet has compositional gradients and is accordingly non-adiabatic, with a complex internal structure. These new results imply that current models of Jupiter's formation and evolution require a revision. In this paper, we discuss potential formation and evolution paths that can lead to an internal structure model consistent with Juno data, and the constraints they provide. We note that standard core accretion formation models, including the heavy-element enrichment during planetary growth is consistent with an interior that is inhomogeneous with composition gradients in its deep interior. However, such formation models typically predict that this region, which could be interpreted as a primordial dilute core, is confined to ∼10% of Jupiter's total mass. In contrast, structure models that fit Juno data imply that this region contains 30% of the mass or more. One way to explain the origin of this extended region is by invoking a relatively long (~2 Myrs) formation phase where the growing planet accretes gas and planetesimals delaying the runaway gas accretion. This is not the same as the delay that appears in standard giant planet formation models because it involves additional accretion of solids in that period. However, both the possible new picture and the old picture are compatible with the formation scenario recently proposed to explain the separation of two meteoritic populations in the solar system. Alternatively, Jupiter's fuzzy core could be a result of a giant impact or convection post-formation. These novel scenarios require somewhat special and specific conditions. Clarity on the plausibility of such conditions could come from future high-resolution observations of planet-forming regions around other stars, from the observed and modeled architectures of extrasolar systems with giant planets, and future Juno data obtained during its extended mission.

Item URL in elib:https://elib.dlr.de/148794/
Document Type:Article
Additional Information:Bisher nur online erschienen.
Title:Revelations on Jupiter's formation, evolution and interior: Challenges from Juno results
AuthorsInstitution or Email of AuthorsAuthor's ORCID iDORCID Put Code
Helled, RavitInstitute for Computational Science, University of Zurich, Zurich, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Stevenson, DavidCaltech, Pasadena, California 91125, USAUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Lunine, J. I.Cornell University, Ithaka, NY, USAUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Bolton, S.SWRI, Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, USAUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Atreya, SUniversity of Michigan, Climate and Space Sciences and Engineering, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USAUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Guillot, TObservatoire de Cote d'AzurUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Militzer, BDepartment of Earth and Planetary Science, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USAUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Miguel, Y.Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, PO Box 9513, NL-2300 RA Leiden, the Netherlands 0000-0002-7064-8270UNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Hubbard, W.B.University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USAUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Date:7 February 2022
Journal or Publication Title:Icarus: International Journal of Solar System Studies
Refereed publication:Yes
Open Access:Yes
Gold Open Access:No
In ISI Web of Science:Yes
Keywords:planets and satellites: interiors; planets and satellites: composition
HGF - Research field:Aeronautics, Space and Transport
HGF - Program:Space
HGF - Program Themes:Space Exploration
DLR - Research area:Raumfahrt
DLR - Program:R EW - Space Exploration
DLR - Research theme (Project):R - Project PLATO - PMC and Science
Location: Berlin-Adlershof
Institutes and Institutions:Institute of Planetary Research > Extrasolar Planets and Atmospheres
Deposited By: Nettelmann, Nadine
Deposited On:22 Feb 2022 07:36
Last Modified:22 Feb 2022 07:36

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