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Spi-OPS: Spitzer and CHEOPS confirm the near-polar orbit of MASCARA-1 b and reveal a hint of dayside reflection

Hooton, M. J. and Hoyer, S. and Kitzmann, D. and Morris, B. M. and Smith, Alexis M S and Collier Cameron, A. and Futyan, D. and Maxted, P. F. L. and Queloz, D. and Demory, B. -O. and Heng, K. and Lendl, M. and Cabrera Perez, J. and Csizmadia, Sz. and Deline, A. and Parviainen, H. and Salmon, S. and Sulis, Sophia and Wilson, T. G. and Bonfanti, A. and Brandeker, A. and Demangeon, O. D. S. and Oshagh, M. and Persson, C. M. and Scandariato, G. and Alibert, Y. and Alonso, R. and Anglada Escudé, G. and Bàrczy, T. and Barrado, D. and Barros, S. C. C. and Baumjohann, W. and Beck, M. and Beck, T. and Benz, W. and Billot, N. and Bonfils, X. and Bourrier, V. and Broeg, C. and Busch, M. -D. and Charnoz, S. and Davies, M. B. and Deleuil, M. and Delrez, L. and Ehrenreich, D. and Erikson, A. and Farinato, J. and Fortier, A. and Fossati, L. and Fridlund, M. and Gandolfi, D. and Gillon, M. and Güdel, M and Isaak, K. G. and Jones, K. and Kiss, L. and Laskar, J. and Lecavelier des Etangs, A. and Lovis, C. and Luntzer, A. and Magrin, D. and Nascimbeni, V. and Olofsson, G. and Ottensamer, R. and Pagano, I. and Palle, E. and Peter, G. and Piotto, G. and Pollacco, D. and Ragazzoni, R. and Rando, N. and Ratti, F. and Rauer, H. and Ribas, I. and Santos, N. C. and Segransan, D. and Simon, A. E. and Sousa, S. G. and Steller, M. and Szabó, Gy. M. and Thomas, N. and Udry, S. and Ulmer, B. and Van Grootel, V. and Walton, N. A. (2022) Spi-OPS: Spitzer and CHEOPS confirm the near-polar orbit of MASCARA-1 b and reveal a hint of dayside reflection. Astronomy & Astrophysics, 658, A75. EDP Sciences. doi: 10.1051/0004-6361/202141645. ISSN 0004-6361.

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Abstract

Context. The light curves of tidally locked hot Jupiters transiting fast-rotating, early-type stars are a rich source of information about both the planet and star, with full-phase coverage enabling a detailed atmospheric characterisation of the planet. Although it is possible to determine the true spin-orbit angle Ψ - a notoriously difficult parameter to measure - from any transit asymmetry resulting from gravity darkening induced by the stellar rotation, the correlations that exist between the transit parameters have led to large disagreements in published values of Ψ for some systems. Aims: We aimed to study these phenomena in the light curves of the ultra-hot Jupiter MASCARA-1 b, which is characteristically similar to well-studied contemporaries such as KELT-9 b and WASP-33 b. Methods: We obtained optical CHaracterising ExOPlanet Satellite (CHEOPS) transit and occultation light curves of MASCARA-1 b, and analysed them jointly with a Spitzer/IRAC 4.5 μm full-phase curve to model the asymmetric transits, occultations, and phase-dependent flux modulation. For the latter, we employed a novel physics-driven approach to jointly fit the phase modulation by generating a single 2D temperature map and integrating it over the two bandpasses as a function of phase to account for the differing planet-star flux contrasts. The reflected light component was modelled using the general ab initio solution for a semi-infinite atmosphere. Results: When fitting the CHEOPS and Spitzer transits together, the degeneracies are greatly diminished and return results consistent with previously published Doppler tomography. Placing priors informed by the tomography achieves even better precision, allowing a determination of Ψ = 72.1−2.4+2.5 deg. From the occultations and phase variations, we derived dayside and nightside temperatures of 3062−68+66 K and 1720 ± 330 K, respectively.Our retrieval suggests that the dayside emission spectrum closely follows that of a blackbody. As the CHEOPS occultation is too deep to be attributed to blackbody flux alone, we could separately derive geometric albedo Ag = 0.171−0.068+0.066 and spherical albedo As = 0.266−0.100+0.097 from the CHEOPS data, and Bond albedoAB = 0.057−0.101+0.083 from the Spitzer phase curve.Although small, the Ag and As indicate that MASCARA-1 b is more reflective than most other ultra-hot Jupiters, where H− absorption is expected to dominate. Conclusions: Where possible, priors informed by Doppler tomography should be used when fitting transits of fast-rotating stars, though multi-colour photometry may also unlock an accurate measurement of Ψ. Our approach to modelling the phase variations at different wavelengths provides a template for how to separate thermal emission from reflected light in spectrally resolved James Webb Space Telescope phase curve data.

Item URL in elib:https://elib.dlr.de/148718/
Document Type:Article
Title:Spi-OPS: Spitzer and CHEOPS confirm the near-polar orbit of MASCARA-1 b and reveal a hint of dayside reflection
Authors:
AuthorsInstitution or Email of AuthorsAuthor's ORCID iD
Hooton, M. J.Physikalisches Institut, University of Bern, Bern, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
Hoyer, S.Laboratoire d’Astrophysique de Marseille, Univ. de Provence, FranceUNSPECIFIED
Kitzmann, D.Center for Space and Habitability, University of Bern, Gesellschaftsstraße 6, 3012, Bern, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
Morris, B. M.Center for Space and Habitability, University of Bern, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
Smith, Alexis M SAlexis.Smith (at) dlr.dehttps://orcid.org/0000-0002-2386-4341
Collier Cameron, A.SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St. Andrews, North Haugh, Fife KY16 9SS, UKUNSPECIFIED
Futyan, D.Observatoire de Genève, University of Geneva, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
Maxted, P. F. L.Astrophysics Group, Keele University, Staffordshire ST5 5BG, UKUNSPECIFIED
Queloz, D.Cavendish Laboratory, J J Thomson Avenue, Cambridge, CB3 0HE, UKUNSPECIFIED
Demory, B. -O.Center for Space and Habitability, Gesellsschaftstrasse 6, 3012, Bern, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
Heng, K.Center for Space and Habitability, University of Bern, Gesellschaftsstraße 6, 3012, Bern, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
Lendl, M.Observatoire de Genève, Université de Genève, 51 Ch. des Maillettes, CH-1290 Sauverny, Switzerland; Space Research Institute, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Schmiedlstr. 6, A-8042 Graz, AustriaUNSPECIFIED
Cabrera Perez, J.Juan.Cabrera (at) dlr.dehttps://orcid.org/0000-0001-6653-5487
Csizmadia, Sz.szilard.csizmadia (at) dlr.dehttps://orcid.org/0000-0001-6803-9698
Deline, A.Observatoire de Genève, University of Geneva, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
Parviainen, H.Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias (IAC), 38205, La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain; Departamento de Astrofisica, Universidad de La Laguna, 38206, La Laguna, Tenerife, SpainUNSPECIFIED
Salmon, S.STAR, Université de Liège, BelgiumUNSPECIFIED
Sulis, SophiaAix Marseille Univ, CNRS, CNES, LAM, Marseille, FranceUNSPECIFIED
Wilson, T. G.School of Physics and Astronomy, St. Andrews, UKhttps://orcid.org/0000-0001-8749-1962
Bonfanti, A.Space Research Institute, Austrian Academy of Sciences, AustriaUNSPECIFIED
Brandeker, A.Department of Astronomy , Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm, SwedenUNSPECIFIED
Demangeon, O. D. S.Instituto de Astrofísica e Ciências do Espaço, Universidade do Porto, CAUP, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762, Porto, PortugalUNSPECIFIED
Oshagh, M.Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias (IAC), 38205, La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain; Departamento de Astrofisica, Universidad de La Laguna (ULL), 38206, La Laguna, Tenerife, SpainUNSPECIFIED
Persson, C. M.Department of Earth and Space Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, Onsala Space Observatory, 439 92, Onsala, SwedenUNSPECIFIED
Scandariato, G.NAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo, Piazza del Parlamento 1, 90134 Palermo, ItalyUNSPECIFIED
Alibert, Y.Physikalisches Institut, University of Bern;Observatoire de Besançon, Institut UTINAM, FranceUNSPECIFIED
Alonso, R.Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias (IAC), Via Lactea s/n 38200, La Laguna, SpainUNSPECIFIED
Anglada Escudé, G.Institut de Ciències de l’Espai (ICE, CSIC), Campus UAB, CanMagrans s/n, 08193 Bellaterra, Spain; Institut d’Estudis Espacials de Catalunya (IEEC), 08034 Barcelona,SpainUNSPECIFIED
Bàrczy, T.Admatis, Miskolc, HungaryUNSPECIFIED
Barrado, D.Departamento de Astrofisica, Centro de Astrobiologia (INTA-CSIC), Campus ESAC (ESA)Camino Bajo del Castillo s/n 28692 Villanueva de la Canada, SpainUNSPECIFIED
Barros, S. C. C.Instituto de Astrofisica e Ciencias do Espaco, Universidade do Porto, CAUP, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto, PortugalUNSPECIFIED
Baumjohann, W.Space Research Institute, Graz, AustriaUNSPECIFIED
Beck, M.Observatoire de Genève, University of Geneva, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
Beck, T.Center for Space and Habitability, University of Bern, Gesellschaftsstraße 6, 3012, Bern, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
Benz, W.Physikalisches Institut,University of Bern, Sidlerstraße 5, CH-3012 Bern, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
Billot, N.Observatoire de Genève, University of Geneva, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
Bonfils, X.Institut de Planétologie et d'Astrophysique, University of Grenoble, FranceUNSPECIFIED
Bourrier, V.Université de Genève, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
Broeg, C.Physikalisches Institut, University of Bern, Bern, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
Busch, M. -D.Physikalisches Institut, University of Bern, Gesellsschaftstrasse 6, 3012, Bern, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
Charnoz, S.Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris, FranceUNSPECIFIED
Davies, M. B.Lund Observatory, Department of Astronomy and Theoretical Physics, Lund University, 22100, Lund, SwedenUNSPECIFIED
Deleuil, M.Aix Marseille Universite, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d Astrophysique de Marseille) UMR 7326, F-13388 Marseille, FranceUNSPECIFIED
Delrez, L.Institut d Astrophysique et de Geophysique, Universite de Liege, Allee du 6 Aout, 17, Bat. B5C, Liege 1, BelgiumUNSPECIFIED
Ehrenreich, D.Observatoire de Genève, University of Geneva, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
Erikson, A.anders.erikson (at) dlr.deUNSPECIFIED
Farinato, J.INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell'Osservatorio 5, 35122 Padova, ItalyUNSPECIFIED
Fortier, A.Physikalisches Institut, University of Bern, Bern, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
Fossati, L.Space Research Institute, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Schmiedlstrasse 6, A-8042 Graz, Austriahttps://orcid.org/0000-0003-4426-9530
Fridlund, M.Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, 2333CA Leiden, The Netherlands; Department of Space, Earth and Environment, Chalmers University of Technology, Onsala Space Observatory, 439 92, Onsala, SwedenUNSPECIFIED
Gandolfi, D.Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Torino, via P. Giuria 1, I-10125 Torino, ItalyUNSPECIFIED
Gillon, M.Institut d Astrophysique et de Geophysique, Universite de LiegeUNSPECIFIED
Güdel, MUniversity of Vienna, Dept. of Astrophysics, Türkenschanzstr. 17, 1180, Vienna, AustriaUNSPECIFIED
Isaak, K. G.ESA/ESTEC, Noordwijk, NiederlandeUNSPECIFIED
Jones, K.Center for Space and Habitability, Gesellsschaftstrasse 6, 3012, Bern, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
Kiss, L.Konkoly Observatory, Research Centre for Astronomy and Earth, Budapest, HungaryUNSPECIFIED
Laskar, J.IMCCE, UMR8028 CNRS, Observatoire de Paris, PSL Univ.,Sorbonne Univ., 77 av. Denfert-Rochereau, 75014 Paris, FranceUNSPECIFIED
Lecavelier des Etangs, A.Institut d Astrophysique de Paris, CNRS, UMR 7095 & Sorbonne Universites, UPMC Paris 6, 98 bis bd Arago, 75014 Paris, FranceUNSPECIFIED
Lovis, C.Observatoire de l Universite de Geneve, 51 chemin des Maillettes, 1290 Sauverny, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
Luntzer, A.Department of Astrophysics, University of ViennaUNSPECIFIED
Magrin, D.INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell'Osservatorio 5, 35122 Padova, ItalyUNSPECIFIED
Nascimbeni, V.Dipartimento di Fisica ed Astronomia, Universitá degli Studi di Padova, Vicolo dell'Osservatorio 3, 35122 Padova, ItalyUNSPECIFIED
Olofsson, G.Department of Astronomy, Stockholm University, AlbaNova University Center, 10691 Stockholm, SwedenUNSPECIFIED
Ottensamer, R.University of Vienna, Department of Astrophysics, AustriaUNSPECIFIED
Pagano, I.INAF – Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, Via S.Sofia 78, 95123 Catania, ItalyUNSPECIFIED
Palle, E.Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias (IAC), 38205, La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain; Departamento de Astrofisica, Universidad de La Laguna (ULL), 38206, La Laguna, Tenerife, SpainUNSPECIFIED
Peter, G.Gisbert.Peter (at) dlr.deUNSPECIFIED
Piotto, G.INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, vicolo dell Osservatorio 5, 35122 Padova, ItalyUNSPECIFIED
Pollacco, D.Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Gibbet Hill Road, Coventry, CV4 7AL, UK; Centre for Exoplanets and Habitability, University of Warwick, Gibbet Hill Road, Coventry, CV4 7AL, UKUNSPECIFIED
Ragazzoni, R.INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell’Osservatorio 5, 35122 Padova, ItalyUNSPECIFIED
Rando, N.ESA/ESTEC, Noordwijk, NiederlandeUNSPECIFIED
Ratti, F.ESA/ESTEC, Noordwijk, NiederlandeUNSPECIFIED
Rauer, H.Heike.Rauer (at) dlr.deUNSPECIFIED
Ribas, I.Institut de Ciencies de l' Espai (ICE, CSIC), C/Can Magrans, s/n, Campus UAB, 08193, Bellaterra, Spain; Institut d'Estudis Espacials de Catalunya (IEEC), 08034, Barcelona, SpainUNSPECIFIED
Santos, N. C.Instituto de Astrofisica e Ciencias do Espaco, Universidade do Porto, CAUP, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto, Portugal; Departamento de Fisica e Astronomia, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade do Porto, Rua Campo Alegre, 4169-007 Porto, PortugalUNSPECIFIED
Segransan, D.Observatoire de Geneve, Universite de Geneve, 51 Chemin des Maillettes, 1290 Sauverny, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
Simon, A. E.Center for Space and Habitability, University of Bern, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
Sousa, S. G.Instituto de Astrofisica e Ciencias do Espaco, Universidade do Porto, CAUP, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto, PortugalUNSPECIFIED
Steller, M.Space Research Institute, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Schmiedlstrasse 6, 8042, Graz, AustriaUNSPECIFIED
Szabó, Gy. M.Department of Experimental Physics & Astronomical Observatory, University of Szeged, Szeged, HungaryUNSPECIFIED
Thomas, N.Space Research and Planetology Division, Physikalisches Institut, Bern, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
Udry, S.Geneva Observatory, University of Geneva, Chemin des Mailettes 51, 1290, Versoix, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
Ulmer, B.Ingenieurbüro Ulmer, GermanyUNSPECIFIED
Van Grootel, V.Université de Liege, BelgiumUNSPECIFIED
Walton, N. A.Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UKUNSPECIFIED
Date:2022
Journal or Publication Title:Astronomy & Astrophysics
Refereed publication:Yes
Open Access:No
Gold Open Access:No
In SCOPUS:Yes
In ISI Web of Science:Yes
Volume:658
DOI:10.1051/0004-6361/202141645
Page Range:A75
Publisher:EDP Sciences
ISSN:0004-6361
Status:Published
Keywords:techniques: photometric, planets and satellites: atmospheres, planets and satellites: physical evolution, planets and satellites: individual: MASCARA-1 b, Astrophysics - Earth and Planetary Astrophysics, Astrophysics - Instrumentation and Methods for Astrophysics
HGF - Research field:Aeronautics, Space and Transport
HGF - Program:Space
HGF - Program Themes:Space Exploration
DLR - Research area:Raumfahrt
DLR - Program:R EW - Space Exploration
DLR - Research theme (Project):R - CHEOPS Science, R - Project CHEOPS
Location: Berlin-Adlershof
Institutes and Institutions:Institute of Planetary Research > Extrasolar Planets and Atmospheres
Institute of Planetary Research > Leitungsbereich PF
Institute of Optical Sensor Systems
Deposited By: Smith, Dr Alexis M S
Deposited On:23 Feb 2022 10:20
Last Modified:23 Feb 2022 10:20

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