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Transit timings variations in the three-planet system: TOI-270

Kaye, Laurel and Vissapragada, Shreyas and Günther, Maximilian N. and Aigrain, Suzanne and Mikal-Evans, Thomas and Jensen, Eric L. N. and Parviainen, Hannu and Pozuelos, Francisco J. and Abe, Lyu and Acton, Jack S. and Agabi, Abdelkrim and Alves, Douglas R. and Anderson, David R. and Armstrong, David J. and Barkaoui, Khalid and Barragán, Oscar and Benneke, Björn and Boyd, Patricia T. and Brahm, Rafael and Bruni, Ivan and Bryant, Edward M. and Burleigh, Matthew R. and Casewell, Sarah L. and Ciardi, David and Cloutier, Ryan and Collins, Karen A. and Collins, Kevin I. and Conti, Dennis M. and Crossfield, Ian J. M. and Crouzet, Nicolas and Daylan, Tansu and Dragomir, Diana and Dransfield, Georgina and Fabrycky, Daniel and Fausnaugh, Michael and Fuűrész, Gábor and Gan, Tianjun and Gill, Samuel and Gillon, Michaël and Goad, Michael R. and Gorjian, Varoujan and Greklek-McKeon, Michael and Guerrero, Natalia and Guillot, Tristan and Jehin, Emmanuël and Jenkins, J. S. and Lendl, Monika and Kamler, Jacob and Kane, Stephen R. and Kielkopf, John F. and Kunimoto, Michelle and Marie-Sainte, Wenceslas and McCormac, James and Mékarnia, Djamel and Morales, Farisa Y. and Moyano, Maximiliano and Palle, Enric and Parmentier, Vivien and Relles, Howard M. and Schmider, François-Xavier and Schwarz, Richard P. and Seager, S. and Smith, Alexis M S and Tan, Thiam-Guan and Taylor, Jake and Triaud, Amaury H. M. J. and Twicken, Joseph D. and Udry, Stephane and Vines, J. I. and Wang, Gavin and Wheatley, Peter J. and Winn, Joshua N. (2022) Transit timings variations in the three-planet system: TOI-270. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 510 (4), pp. 5464-5485. Oxford University Press. doi: 10.1093/mnras/stab3483. ISSN 0035-8711.

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Official URL: https://academic.oup.com/mnras/article/510/4/5464/6454033

Abstract

We present ground- and space-based photometric observations of TOI-270 (L231-32), a system of three transiting planets consisting of one super-Earth and two sub-Neptunes discovered by TESS around a bright (K-mag = 8.25) M3V dwarf. The planets orbit near low-order mean-motion resonances (5:3 and 2:1) and are thus expected to exhibit large transit timing variations (TTVs). Following an extensive observing campaign using eight different observatories between 2018 and 2020, we now report a clear detection of TTVs for planets c and d, with amplitudes of ~10 min and a super-period of ~3 yr, as well as significantly refined estimates of the radii and mean orbital periods of all three planets. Dynamical modelling of the TTVs alone puts strong constraints on the mass ratio of planets c and d and on their eccentricities. When incorporating recently published constraints from radial velocity observations, we obtain masses of Mb=1.48±0.18M⊕, Mc=6.20±0.31M⊕, and Md=4.20±0.16M⊕ for planets b, c, and d, respectively. We also detect small but significant eccentricities for all three planets : eb = 0.0167 ± 0.0084, ec = 0.0044 ± 0.0006, and ed = 0.0066 ± 0.0020. Our findings imply an Earth-like rocky composition for the inner planet, and Earth-like cores with an additional He/H2O atmosphere for the outer two. TOI-270 is now one of the best constrained systems of small transiting planets, and it remains an excellent target for atmospheric characterization.

Item URL in elib:https://elib.dlr.de/148717/
Document Type:Article
Title:Transit timings variations in the three-planet system: TOI-270
Authors:
AuthorsInstitution or Email of AuthorsAuthor's ORCID iD
Kaye, LaurelDepartment of Physics, University of Oxford, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH, UKUNSPECIFIED
Vissapragada, ShreyasDivision of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Blvd, Pasadena, CA 91125, USAUNSPECIFIED
Günther, Maximilian N.Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA; Juan Carlos Torres Fellow; Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USAUNSPECIFIED
Aigrain, SuzanneDepartment of Physics, University of Oxford, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH, UKUNSPECIFIED
Mikal-Evans, ThomasKavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USAUNSPECIFIED
Jensen, Eric L. N.Department of Physics & Astronomy, Swarthmore College, Swarthmore, PA 19081, USAUNSPECIFIED
Parviainen, HannuInstituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC), E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain; Department Astrofísica, Universidad de La Laguna (ULL), E-38206 La Laguna, Tenerife, SpainUNSPECIFIED
Pozuelos, Francisco J.Space Sciences, Technologies and Astrophysics Research (STAR) Institute, Université de Liège, 19C Allée du 6 Août, B-4000 Liège, Belgium; Astrobiology Research Unit, Université de Liège, 19C Allée du 6 Août, B-4000 Liège, BelgiumUNSPECIFIED
Abe, LyuUniversité Côte d'Azur, Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur, CNRS, Laboratoire Lagrange, Bd de l'Observatoire, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice cedex 4, FranceUNSPECIFIED
Acton, Jack S.School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH, UKUNSPECIFIED
Agabi, AbdelkrimUniversité Côte d'Azur, Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur, CNRS, Laboratoire Lagrange, Bd de l'Observatoire, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice cedex 4, FranceUNSPECIFIED
Alves, Douglas R.Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36-D, Santiago, ChileUNSPECIFIED
Anderson, David R.Centre for Exoplanets and Habitability, University of Warwick, Gibbet Hill Road, Coventry CV4 7AL, UK; Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Gibbet Hill Road, Coventry CV4 7AL, UKUNSPECIFIED
Armstrong, David J.Centre for Exoplanets and Habitability, University of Warwick, Gibbet Hill Road, Coventry CV4 7AL, UK; Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Gibbet Hill Road, Coventry CV4 7AL, UKUNSPECIFIED
Barkaoui, KhalidAstrobiology Research Unit, Université de Liège, 19C Allée du 6 Août, B-4000 Liège, Belgium; Oukaimeden Observatory, High Energy Physics and Astrophysics Laboratory, Cadi Ayyad University, Marrakech, MoroccoUNSPECIFIED
Barragán, OscarDepartment of Physics, University of Oxford, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH, UKUNSPECIFIED
Benneke, BjörnDepartment of Physics and Institute for Research on Exoplanets, Université de Montréal, Montreal, QC, CanadaUNSPECIFIED
Boyd, Patricia T.Astrophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771, USAUNSPECIFIED
Brahm, RafaelFacultad de Ingeniería y Ciencias, Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez, Av. Diagonal las Torres 2640, Peñalolén, Santiago, Chile; Millennium Institute for Astrophysics, 4860, Macul, Santiago, ChileUNSPECIFIED
Bruni, IvanConcordia Station, IPEV/PNRA, AntarcticaUNSPECIFIED
Bryant, Edward M.Centre for Exoplanets and Habitability, University of Warwick, Gibbet Hill Road, Coventry CV4 7AL, UK; Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Gibbet Hill Road, Coventry CV4 7AL, UKUNSPECIFIED
Burleigh, Matthew R.School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH, UKUNSPECIFIED
Casewell, Sarah L.School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH, UKUNSPECIFIED
Ciardi, DavidCaltech/IPAC-NASA Exoplanet Science Institute Pasadena, CA 91125, USAUNSPECIFIED
Cloutier, RyanBanting Fellow; Center for Astrophysics | Harvard & Smithsonian, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138, USAUNSPECIFIED
Collins, Karen A.George Mason University, 4400 University Drive, Fairfax, VA 22030 USAUNSPECIFIED
Collins, Kevin I.American Association of Variable Star Observers, 49 Bay State Road, Cambridge, MA 02138, USAUNSPECIFIED
Conti, Dennis M.American Association of Variable Star Observers, 49 Bay State Road, Cambridge, MA 02138, USAUNSPECIFIED
Crossfield, Ian J. M.Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kansas, Pasadena, CA 91125, USAUNSPECIFIED
Crouzet, NicolasEuropean Space Agency (ESA), European Space Research and Technology Centre (ESTEC), Keplerlaan 1, NL-2201 AZ Noordwijk, the NetherlandsUNSPECIFIED
Daylan, TansuKavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA; Kavli FellowUNSPECIFIED
Dragomir, DianaDepartment of Physics and Astronomy, University of New Mexico, 210 Yale Blvd NE, Albuquerque, NM 87106, USAUNSPECIFIED
Dransfield, GeorginaSchool of Physics & Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, UKUNSPECIFIED
Fabrycky, DanielDepartment of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, 5640 S Ellis Ave Chicago, IL 60637, USAUNSPECIFIED
Fausnaugh, MichaelKavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USAUNSPECIFIED
Fuűrész, GáborKavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USAUNSPECIFIED
Gan, TianjunDepartment of Astronomy and Tsinghua Centre for Astrophysics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, ChinaUNSPECIFIED
Gill, SamuelCentre for Exoplanets and Habitability, University of Warwick, Gibbet Hill Road, Coventry CV4 7AL, UK; Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Gibbet Hill Road, Coventry CV4 7AL, UKUNSPECIFIED
Gillon, MichaëlAstrobiology Research Unit, Université de Liège, 19C Allée du 6 Août, B-4000 Liège, BelgiumUNSPECIFIED
Goad, Michael R.School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH, UKUNSPECIFIED
Gorjian, VaroujanJet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109, USAUNSPECIFIED
Greklek-McKeon, MichaelDivision of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Blvd, Pasadena, CA 91125, USAUNSPECIFIED
Guerrero, NataliaDepartment of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USAUNSPECIFIED
Guillot, TristanUniversité Côte d'Azur, Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur, CNRS, Laboratoire Lagrange, Bd de l'Observatoire, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice cedex 4, FranceUNSPECIFIED
Jehin, EmmanuëlSpace Sciences, Technologies and Astrophysics Research (STAR) Institute, Université de Liège, 19C Allée du 6 Août, B-4000 Liège, BelgiumUNSPECIFIED
Jenkins, J. S.Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36-D, Santiago, Chile; Núcleo de Astronomía, Facultad de Ingeniería y Ciencias, Universidad Diego Portales, Av. Ejército 441, Santiago, ChileUNSPECIFIED
Lendl, MonikaObservatoire Astronomique de l'Université de Genève, Chemin Pegasi CH-51, Versoix, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
Kamler, JacobJohn F. Kennedy High School, 3000 Bellmore Avenue, Bellmore, NY 11710, USAUNSPECIFIED
Kane, Stephen R.Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521, USAUNSPECIFIED
Kielkopf, John F.Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40292, USAUNSPECIFIED
Kunimoto, MichelleDepartment of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA; Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USAUNSPECIFIED
Marie-Sainte, WenceslasConcordia Station, IPEV/PNRA, AntarcticaUNSPECIFIED
McCormac, JamesCentre for Exoplanets and Habitability, University of Warwick, Gibbet Hill Road, Coventry CV4 7AL, UK; Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Gibbet Hill Road, Coventry CV4 7AL, UKUNSPECIFIED
Mékarnia, DjamelUniversité Côte d'Azur, Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur, CNRS, Laboratoire Lagrange, Bd de l'Observatoire, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice cedex 4, FranceUNSPECIFIED
Morales, Farisa Y.Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109, USAUNSPECIFIED
Moyano, MaximilianoInstituto de Astronomía, Universidad Católica del Norte, 1270709, Antofagasta, ChileUNSPECIFIED
Palle, EnricInstituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC), E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain; Department Astrofísica, Universidad de La Laguna (ULL), E-38206 La Laguna, Tenerife, SpainUNSPECIFIED
Parmentier, VivienDepartment of Physics, University of Oxford, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH, UKUNSPECIFIED
Relles, Howard M.Center for Astrophysics | Harvard & Smithsonian, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138, USAUNSPECIFIED
Schmider, François-XavierUniversité Côte d'Azur, Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur, CNRS, Laboratoire Lagrange, Bd de l'Observatoire, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice cedex 4, FranceUNSPECIFIED
Schwarz, Richard P.Patashnick Voorheesville Observatory, Voorheesville, NY 12186, USAUNSPECIFIED
Seager, S.Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA; Department of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA; Department of AUNSPECIFIED
Smith, Alexis M SUNSPECIFIEDhttps://orcid.org/0000-0002-2386-4341
Tan, Thiam-GuanPerth Exoplanet Survey Telescope, Perth, Western, WA 6076, AustraliaUNSPECIFIED
Taylor, JakeDepartment of Physics, University of Oxford, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH, UKUNSPECIFIED
Triaud, Amaury H. M. J.School of Physics & Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, UKUNSPECIFIED
Twicken, Joseph D.SETI Institute, Mountain View, CA 94043, USA; NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035, USAUNSPECIFIED
Udry, StephaneObservatoire Astronomique de l'Université de Genève, Chemin Pegasi CH-51, Versoix, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
Vines, J. I.Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36-D, Santiago, ChileUNSPECIFIED
Wang, GavinTsinghua International School, Beijing 100084, China; Stanford Online High School, 415 Broadway Academy Hall, Floor 2, 8853, Redwood City, CA 94063, USAUNSPECIFIED
Wheatley, Peter J.Centre for Exoplanets and Habitability, University of Warwick, Gibbet Hill Road, Coventry CV4 7AL, UK; Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Gibbet Hill Road, Coventry CV4 7AL, UKUNSPECIFIED
Winn, Joshua N.Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, 4 Ivy Lane, Princeton, NJ 08544, USAUNSPECIFIED
Date:2022
Journal or Publication Title:Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Refereed publication:Yes
Open Access:Yes
Gold Open Access:No
In SCOPUS:Yes
In ISI Web of Science:Yes
Volume:510
DOI:10.1093/mnras/stab3483
Page Range:pp. 5464-5485
Publisher:Oxford University Press
ISSN:0035-8711
Status:Published
Keywords:planets and satellites: composition, planets and satellites: formation, planets and satellites: fundamental parameters
HGF - Research field:Aeronautics, Space and Transport
HGF - Program:Space
HGF - Program Themes:Space Exploration
DLR - Research area:Raumfahrt
DLR - Program:R EW - Space Exploration
DLR - Research theme (Project):R - Project PLATO - PMC and Science
Location: Berlin-Adlershof
Institutes and Institutions:Institute of Planetary Research > Extrasolar Planets and Atmospheres
Deposited By: Smith, Dr Alexis M S
Deposited On:22 Feb 2022 07:33
Last Modified:08 Feb 2023 03:00

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